» » Land Tenure

 

Land Tenure

Author: nick on 13-09-2013, 20:00, views: 8 014

228

In the Ibibio area, where farming is the main occupation and there is relatively much land for farming activities, a farming cycle prevails in which the same piece of land is cultivated every fifth to seventh year, depending on the available land owned by the village. This system of farming, generally referred to as rotational bush fallow, is still being practised today, but the fallow period has been greatly reduced, because of the pressure on the land. The area of land farmed every year is divided into sections, each ekpuk (extended family) having its own section. The head of the family subdivides the family land to each male member at the beginning of each farming season.

 

The size of farmland for the various families differs and is indicated by permanent boundary mounds. Attempts to alter it have led to serious quarrels between families, or between individuals in the same family. By tradition, no family land can be sold outright to anybody outside or even within the family, but a member of the family can pledge his piece of land to some other person, inside or outside the family. In recent times, however, quite a number of people have defied this tradition and have sold their land or the whole family land to rich individuals for reasonable sums of money, transferring their, or the family, title over the land to the purchaser.

 

Apart from the family land, there are also other land holdings, belonging to the community or used as sacred groves, which cannot be tampered with by an individual. The following categories of land tenure are recognised in Ikot Abasi area:

 

a) Family land (Ikot Ufok): This is the ancestral land, inherited by members of the family. No piece of this land can be sold by any member of the family to anybody. An individual can, however, pledge his portion for a fee and the land is always redeemable when the money is refunded.

 

b) Pledged Land (Ikot Ubiong): As indicated above, this is the plot of land pledged by a man to another person, usually outside the family circle for a fee. The length of time pledged may or may not be fixed. Even if it is fixed, and the owner does not pay back the money to reclaim the land within the period, he cannot forfeit his right to the ownership of the land. The agreement is usually so elastic that children or grand children can still redeem the land, long after the death of the original people involved in the contract. It has been observed that when the period is rather too long, the amount involved and the proof of ownership may bring quarrels between two families, since no written records had been kept.

 

c) Borrowed land (Mmum Nkama Ikot): In this case, the farmland is given to a friend from another family, or a distant relation, who has no right to the ownership of the land. No fee is usually involved. The borrower may farm it for only one farming season, or for a much longer period, but the land has to be returned to the man or his children, whenever the request is made.

 

d) Rented Land (Nto Nwo): This land is given to a person to farm for a season, after the payment of a fee, which is not refundable. After harvesting, the land is vacated and given back to the owner.

 

e) Community Land (Ikot hong): This is the land that belongs to the entire village and no individual has any right to farm on the land without permission from the village council or council of chiefs, who are the custodians of all traditional lands. In some cases, the land is set aside for family cultural rites. There is a day set aside for general hunting on the land, and any animal killed is shared among the entire people in the village. The land is never cleared.

 

Communal Co-operation
 
Communal labour stimulated economic growth and development. The building of houses, making roof mats, clearing the paths and sources of water supply, sweeping the markets, making fishing nets, etc. were done through group work. Giving of loans or gifts to friends in time of need - especially at burials, marriages and initiation into cultural societies, in hardship or at bad harvest, assistance in labour or in kind, was a reciprocal and important social obligation.
 

f) Sacred Land or burial grounds (ho Ndem or Akai Ndem or Akai Ikot Okpoho): This is a forested land, set aside for shrines, burials and for the Ekpo and other societies, etc. It is never tampered with.

скачать dle 11.1смотреть фильмы бесплатно

Category: Tradition and Culture

Dear visitor, you are browsing our website as Guest.
We strongly recommend you to register and login to view hidden contents.
<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 1
  • ICQ: {icq}
17 August 2020 20:34

many61

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 17.08.2020
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
Great sharing with us. We have best offer to customers for maid Service to your area in Utah Country. We are best clean offer in your home by Utah Maids Service

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 1
  • ICQ: {icq}
20 August 2020 03:26

Ebony Davis

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 8.08.2020
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
검증사이트 - 먹튀사이트, 먹튀검증 먹튀사이트 먹튀폴리스입니다. 먹튀폴리스는 신규는 물론 오픈된 먹튀사이트를 철저히 먹튀검증하여 먹튀없는 시대를 만들어가고 있습니다. 먹튀폴리스를 사랑하는 여러분의 많은 호응바랍니다. 여러분의 충실한 검증사이트가 되도록 노력하겠습니다.

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 1
  • ICQ: {icq}
26 August 2020 01:29

claudiatorres19

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 26.08.2020
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
먹튀사이트, 먹튀검증 먹튀사이트 먹튀폴리스입니다. 먹튀폴리스는 신규는 물론 오픈된 먹튀사이트를 철저히 먹튀검증하여 먹튀없는 시대를 만들어가고 있습니다. 먹튀폴리스를 사랑하는 여러분의 많은 호응바랍니다. 여러분의 충실한 검증사이트가 되도록 노력하겠습니다.

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 4
  • ICQ: {icq}
26 August 2020 09:52

renaravvv

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 14.07.2020
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 1
  • ICQ: {icq}
31 August 2020 00:14

angelareyes57

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 30.08.2020
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
먹튀사이트, 먹튀검증 먹튀사이트 먹튀폴리스입니다. 먹튀폴리스는 신규는 물론 오픈된 먹튀사이트를 철저히 먹튀검증하여 먹튀없는 시대를 만들어가고 있습니다. 먹튀폴리스를 사랑하는 여러분의 많은 호응바랍니다. 여러분의 충실한 검증사이트가 되도록 노력하겠습니다.

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 1
  • ICQ: {icq}
7 September 2020 13:15

neeruroy2020

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 7.09.2020
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
You should never expose yourself to depression in your hotel when you can essentially associate with Call Girls in Delhi who have the Midas touch to drive boredom and loneliness out through the hotel windows and add some untold excitement to your life while you are travelling here.
https://neeruroy.com/call-girls-in-delhi/
https://neeruroy.com/
https://neeruroy.com/russian-escorts-in-delhi/

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 1
  • ICQ: {icq}
7 September 2020 16:10

silvialanier5

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 4.09.2020
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
검증사이트, 먹튀검증 먹튀사이트 먹튀폴리스입니다. 먹튀폴리스는 신규는 물론 오픈된 먹튀사이트를 철저히 먹튀검증하여 먹튀없는 시대를 만들어가고 있습니다. 먹튀폴리스를 사랑하는 여러분의 많은 호응바랍니다. 여러분의 충실한 검증사이트가 되도록 노력하겠습니다.

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 1
  • ICQ: {icq}
12 September 2020 14:02

ashleydailey9

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 9.09.2020
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
최고의 검증사이트 먹튀폴리스는 먹튀검증커뮤니티로써 꽁머니 제공은 물론, 먹튀사이트의 먹튀검증을 위한 검증사이트입니다. 먹튀폴리스 먹튀검증커뮤니티를 통해 신규 먹튀사이트 정보와 기존 토토사이트의 철저한 검증으로 먹튀없는 시대를 만들어가고 있습니다. 먹튀검증 먹튀폴리스를 사랑하는 여러분의 많은 호응바랍니다.

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 1
  • ICQ: {icq}
13 September 2020 15:55

natalieoaks9

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 11.09.2020
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
먹튀검증 먹튀사이트 먹튀폴리스입니다. 먹튀폴리스는 신규는 물론 오픈된 먹튀사이트를 철저히 먹튀검증하여 먹튀없는 시대를 만들어가고 있습니다. 먹튀폴리스를 사랑하는 여러분의 많은 호응바랍니다. 여러분의 충실한 먹튀검증 사이트가 되도록 노력하겠습니다.

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 1
  • ICQ: {icq}
16 September 2020 11:37

flossiereich

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 16.09.2020
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
먹튀폴리스 - 먹튀사이트, 먹튀검증 먹튀사이트 먹튀폴리스입니다. 먹튀폴리스는 신규는 물론 오픈된 먹튀사이트를 철저히 먹튀검증하여 먹튀없는 시대를 만들어가고 있습니다. 먹튀폴리스를 사랑하는 여러분의 많은 호응바랍니다. 여러분의 충실한 검증사이트가 되도록 노력하겠습니다.

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 1
  • ICQ: {icq}
21 September 2020 22:38

joygrier9

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 21.09.2020
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 1
  • ICQ: {icq}
30 September 2020 07:45

kristadabney9

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 25.09.2020
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
먹튀폴리스 먹튀사이트 먹튀수사대입니다. 토토 신규는 물론 오픈된 먹튀사이트를 철저히 검증하여 먹튀없는 시대를 만들어가고 있습니다. 토토를 사랑하는 여러분의 많은 호응바랍니다. 여러분의 충실한 먹튀폴리스가 되도록 노력하겠습니다.

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 1
  • ICQ: {icq}
9 October 2020 20:07

agnesbegay

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 9.10.2020
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 1
  • ICQ: {icq}
9 October 2020 23:07

donaldbaker9

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 9.10.2020
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
WakeSurf - We offer local Boat Charters in San Diego for Water Sport activities like Wakeboarding and Wake Surfing.

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 1
  • ICQ: {icq}
11 October 2020 11:46

gclubwish1

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 8.10.2020
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
จีคลับ
เราคือเป็นหนึ่งในเว็บ Gclub ผู้ให้บริการเว็บคาสิโนออนไลน์ที่บริการดีที่สุด ตัวแทนจากบ่อนโดยตรง ได้รับมอบหมายให้ดำเนินการดูแลด้านการบริการเปิดบัญชี ฝาก-ถอนเงิน ให้สมาชิก Gclub เพื่อเดิมพันออนไลน์ผ่านช่องทางออนไลน์ เปิดบริการตลอด 24 ชม. โดยสมาชิกสามารถเปิดบัญชีและฝากถอนเงินด้วยระบบอัตโนมัติในไม่กี่นาที ท่านก็สามารถเล่นคาสิโนออนไลน์ ผ่านโทรศัพท์มือถือได้ ฝาก-ถอนเงินได้ไม่จำกัดจำนวนครั้ง ยังมีโปรโมชั่นมากมายให้ท่านสมาชิกติดตาม หากสนใจติดต่อสอบถามรายละเอียดได้ตลอดเวลา เรามีเจ้าหน้าที่คอยตอบคำถาม ให้คำแนะนำท่านตลอด 24 ชม. Gclub Wish ยินดีให้บริการ

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 1
  • ICQ: {icq}
12 October 2020 21:55

mariabaxter9

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 9.10.2020
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
검증사이트
먹튀폴리스 먹튀 검증사이트 먹튀수사대입니다. 토토 신규는 물론 오픈된 먹튀사이트를 철저히 검증하여 먹튀없는 시대를 만들어가고 있습니다. 토토를 사랑하는 여러분의 많은 호응바랍니다. 여러분의 충실한 먹튀폴리스가 되도록 노력하겠습니다.

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 1 420
  • ICQ: {icq}
13 October 2020 12:21

mtom78632

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 6.08.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
Heya i  am for the first time here. I found this board and I find It really useful  & it helped me out much. I hope to give something back and aid others  like you helped me. 토토사이트


-----------------------


Hi  there, May I grab your image and implement it on my web log?  유흥사이트

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 1
  • ICQ: {icq}
14 October 2020 22:48

nancycook99

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 14.10.2020
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
속시원한 먹튀검증 먹튀폴리스입니다. 최고의 검증사이트 먹튀폴리스는 오랜 경험과 노하우로 신규는 물론 오픈된 토토 먹튀사이트를 철저히 먹튀검증하여 먹튀없는 시대를 만들어가고 있습니다. 먹튀폴리스를 사랑하는 여러분의 많은 호응바랍니다. 여러분의 제보는 물론 실시간 먹튀 감시로 여러분의 충실한 먹튀검증 사이트가 되도록 노력하겠습니다.

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 1
  • ICQ: {icq}
15 October 2020 21:56

ednagibbs9

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 10.10.2020
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
먹튀폴리스는 먹튀검증커뮤니티로써 꽁머니 제공은 물론, 먹튀사이트의 먹튀검증을 위한 검증사이트입니다. 먹튀폴리스 먹튀검증커뮤니티를 통해 신규 먹튀사이트 정보와 기존 토토사이트의 철저한 검증으로 먹튀없는 시대를 만들어가고 있습니다. 먹튀검증 먹튀폴리스를 사랑하는 여러분의 많은 호응바랍니다.

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 1
  • ICQ: {icq}
20 October 2020 10:35

riyanegi

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 20.10.2020
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
Hey,friends welcome to my profile I am model working for Delhi Call Girls Service.In my agency offer all type escorts in Delhi, So if you want to hire Delhi Call Girls than this profile is very valuable for you.
Call Girls in Delhi
Call Girls In Dwarka
Delhi Escorts Girls
Air-Hostess Escorts Girls
Bollywood Escorts Girls
High Rated Escorts Girls
Sexy Housewife Escorts
Celebrity Escorts Girls
High Profile Call Girls
Punjabi Call Girls
Lesbian Escorts Girls
Slim Call Girls

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 1
  • ICQ: {icq}
23 October 2020 01:27

winstontravis20

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 23.10.2020
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
먹튀검증 먹튀사이트 먹튀폴리스입니다. 먹튀폴리스는 신규는 물론 오픈된 먹튀사이트를 철저히 먹튀검증하여 먹튀없는 시대를 만들어가고 있습니다. 먹튀폴리스를 사랑하는 여러분의 많은 호응바랍니다. 여러분의 충실한 먹튀검증 사이트가 되도록 노력하겠습니다.

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 1
  • ICQ: {icq}
29 October 2020 18:43

bonitasalcedo

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 29.10.2020
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 1
  • ICQ: {icq}
30 October 2020 03:51

theresapedigo

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 28.10.2020
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
High risk merchant account authorize net - Ipaytotal being globally reckoned as the best high risk payment processor ,recently has expanded its risk appetite which means we can now onboard almost all the high risk industries.
So if you are finding it difficult to find a home for your high risk business, contact us now at [email protected]
Your search for a reliable payment partner ends here.

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 1
  • ICQ: {icq}
1 November 2020 23:23

jeanakenny

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 29.10.2020
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
Craftsman snap ring pliers set
Here at Walt’s DIY we write highly detailed articles reviewing the products and we do this so you not only have up-to-date information and can compare product to product, but so you can confidently purchase the right item for you.

That’s the important bit. It has to be right for what you are looking to do, your budget, your experience, your profession.

There’s no point in just advising you to buy the most expensive item, or the one with all the bells and whistles – it has to be right for you. You can only know that by comparing each product side-by-side and that is what we do.

Our review factors include price, user review scores, performance, customer service, warranty, and features.

In our experience, the highest-priced option is not always the best, and there will be competitors that will have all of the features you will be looking for.

It’s only by dedicating the time to analyzing each one will you know that. All our reviews are written in easy to read formats and include a comparison table for quickness.

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 1
  • ICQ: {icq}
3 November 2020 18:35

patriciameyer

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 2.11.2020
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
amazon affilliate buying guide for tents
https://tentsreviewed.com/

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 1
  • ICQ: {icq}
6 November 2020 13:02

genevahuard

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 22.10.2020
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
먹튀검증 먹튀사이트 먹튀폴리스입니다. 먹튀폴리스는 신규는 물론 오픈된 먹튀사이트를 철저히 먹튀검증하여 먹튀없는 시대를 만들어가고 있습니다. 먹튀폴리스를 사랑하는 여러분의 많은 호응바랍니다. 여러분의 충실한 먹튀검증 사이트가 되도록 노력하겠습니다.

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 1
  • ICQ: {icq}
9 November 2020 09:29

emmasmith

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 2.11.2020
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
This post is clear and simple to appreciate. I'm learning all the moreover concerning this. Wish you to give more things identified with it. You're truly astonishing a great deal
Manchester Escorts
Liverpool Escorts Agency

Information
Users of Guests are not allowed to comment this publication.