» » Land Tenure

 

Land Tenure

Author: nick on 13-09-2013, 20:00, views: 6 971

179

In the Ibibio area, where farming is the main occupation and there is relatively much land for farming activities, a farming cycle prevails in which the same piece of land is cultivated every fifth to seventh year, depending on the available land owned by the village. This system of farming, generally referred to as rotational bush fallow, is still being practised today, but the fallow period has been greatly reduced, because of the pressure on the land. The area of land farmed every year is divided into sections, each ekpuk (extended family) having its own section. The head of the family subdivides the family land to each male member at the beginning of each farming season.

 

The size of farmland for the various families differs and is indicated by permanent boundary mounds. Attempts to alter it have led to serious quarrels between families, or between individuals in the same family. By tradition, no family land can be sold outright to anybody outside or even within the family, but a member of the family can pledge his piece of land to some other person, inside or outside the family. In recent times, however, quite a number of people have defied this tradition and have sold their land or the whole family land to rich individuals for reasonable sums of money, transferring their, or the family, title over the land to the purchaser.

 

Apart from the family land, there are also other land holdings, belonging to the community or used as sacred groves, which cannot be tampered with by an individual. The following categories of land tenure are recognised in Ikot Abasi area:

 

a) Family land (Ikot Ufok): This is the ancestral land, inherited by members of the family. No piece of this land can be sold by any member of the family to anybody. An individual can, however, pledge his portion for a fee and the land is always redeemable when the money is refunded.

 

b) Pledged Land (Ikot Ubiong): As indicated above, this is the plot of land pledged by a man to another person, usually outside the family circle for a fee. The length of time pledged may or may not be fixed. Even if it is fixed, and the owner does not pay back the money to reclaim the land within the period, he cannot forfeit his right to the ownership of the land. The agreement is usually so elastic that children or grand children can still redeem the land, long after the death of the original people involved in the contract. It has been observed that when the period is rather too long, the amount involved and the proof of ownership may bring quarrels between two families, since no written records had been kept.

 

c) Borrowed land (Mmum Nkama Ikot): In this case, the farmland is given to a friend from another family, or a distant relation, who has no right to the ownership of the land. No fee is usually involved. The borrower may farm it for only one farming season, or for a much longer period, but the land has to be returned to the man or his children, whenever the request is made.

 

d) Rented Land (Nto Nwo): This land is given to a person to farm for a season, after the payment of a fee, which is not refundable. After harvesting, the land is vacated and given back to the owner.

 

e) Community Land (Ikot hong): This is the land that belongs to the entire village and no individual has any right to farm on the land without permission from the village council or council of chiefs, who are the custodians of all traditional lands. In some cases, the land is set aside for family cultural rites. There is a day set aside for general hunting on the land, and any animal killed is shared among the entire people in the village. The land is never cleared.

 

Communal Co-operation
 
Communal labour stimulated economic growth and development. The building of houses, making roof mats, clearing the paths and sources of water supply, sweeping the markets, making fishing nets, etc. were done through group work. Giving of loans or gifts to friends in time of need - especially at burials, marriages and initiation into cultural societies, in hardship or at bad harvest, assistance in labour or in kind, was a reciprocal and important social obligation.
 

f) Sacred Land or burial grounds (ho Ndem or Akai Ndem or Akai Ikot Okpoho): This is a forested land, set aside for shrines, burials and for the Ekpo and other societies, etc. It is never tampered with.

скачать dle 11.1смотреть фильмы бесплатно

Category: Tradition and Culture

Dear visitor, you are browsing our website as Guest.
We strongly recommend you to register and login to view hidden contents.
<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 1
  • ICQ: {icq}
4 June 2019 12:21

alinalingua909

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 4.06.2019
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
This blog is really informative. I like this post. If you are interested in Bitcoin buy and sell So Bitcoin Amazon gift card is that the key term for exchanging Bitcoins for Gift Cards and vice verse. this implies that you just can purchase the specified gift card for cheaper and anonymously by using Bitcoin.

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 673
  • ICQ: {icq}
4 June 2019 14:34

mtom

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 29.10.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
Forskolin  Maximum Strength Forskohlin Extract for Weight Loss. Diet Pills & Belly  Buster Supplement. Premium Appetite Suppressant, Metabolism Booster, Carb  Blocker & Fat Burner for Women and Men. Check Our Website Free Pure  Forskolin Extract Weight Loss Pills Trial, Buy Premium Forskolin

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 4
  • ICQ: {icq}
8 June 2019 11:26

arpitayadav

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 25.04.2019
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
I am very admirer of your made work and the inspiration driving square concerning your offer frustrating to any character in your piece at any rate I discovered some minor syntactic fight in your affected work with the target that you to can resolve from coursework writing in unbelievably versatile time.
Escorts in Udaipur
Udaipur Escorts Service
Udaipur Escorts
Udaipur Call Girls
Call Girls in Udaipur

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 673
  • ICQ: {icq}
25 June 2019 17:28

mtom

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 29.10.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
This is a  appropriate weblog for everyone who is would like to find out about this  topic. You already know much its virtually hard to argue to you (not that I  really would want…HaHa). You actually put a whole new spin with a topic thats  been revealed for decades. Great stuff, just excellent! pay day  loan consolidation

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 1
  • ICQ: {icq}
27 June 2019 14:10

Geeksrider

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 27.06.2019
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
Hare is the easy way to read and write any article about news tech update and latest best website to download movies and TV shows as well as Sports streaming online.

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 673
  • ICQ: {icq}
29 June 2019 16:47

mtom

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 29.10.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
Hello!  I’ve been reading your web site for a while now and finally got the courage  to go ahead and give you a shout out from   Kingwood Texas! Just wanted to say keep up the good work!
https://www.tripadvisor.com/Attraction_Review-g31350-d17430653-Reviews-ED_Marsh
all_Jewelers-Scottsdale_Arizona.html

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 673
  • ICQ: {icq}
1 July 2019 20:42

mtom

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 29.10.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
Excellent  read, I just passed this onto a colleague who was doing a little study on  that. And he actually bought me lunch because I found it for him smile So let  me rephrase that: Thanks for lunch!  ​http://kagay-an.com/​​​

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 673
  • ICQ: {icq}
10 July 2019 22:25

mtom

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 29.10.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
With the  whole thing that appears to be developing throughout this subject matter,  your perspectives are very refreshing. However, I appologize, but I can not  give credence to your whole plan, all be it exhilarating none the less. It  would seem to everyone that your comments are actually not totally justified  and in actuality you are generally yourself not even fully convinced of your  point. In any event I did take pleasure in reading it.  真空除毛


I used to  be recommended this website by my cousin. I am no longer sure whether this  put up is written by way of him as no one else realize such precise  approximately my trouble. You are wonderful! Thank you!​토토사이안전놀이터​​​

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 673
  • ICQ: {icq}
11 July 2019 16:38

mtom

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 29.10.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
I always  was interested   in this  subject   and still   am,  appreciate it for posting . 안전놀이터

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 673
  • ICQ: {icq}
15 July 2019 16:24

mtom

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 29.10.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
nice post,  am going to bookmark your post for future reference  techarim.com

I can’t  really help but admire your blog, your blog is so adorable and nice . ​payday consolidation loans​​​

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 673
  • ICQ: {icq}
17 July 2019 17:26

mtom

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 29.10.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
I usually  dont post in Blogs but your blog forced me to, amazing work. beautiful.  printer repair nyc


I really  wanted to make a brief word to say thanks to you for all of the amazing  points you are sharing at this website. My time intensive internet lookup has  finally been honored with really good facts and strategies to go over with my  colleagues. I ‘d claim that we visitors are rather fortunate to dwell in a  remarkable website with so many lovely professionals with valuable  guidelines. I feel somewhat fortunate to have encountered your entire site  and look forward to plenty of more exciting minutes reading here. Thanks a  lot once again for a lot of things.​kettle corn gifts​​​

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 673
  • ICQ: {icq}
18 July 2019 19:35

mtom

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 29.10.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
Fantastic  job here. I really enjoyed what you had to say. Keep heading because you  surely bring a new voice to this subject. Not many people would say what  youve said and still make it interesting. Well, at least Im interested. Cant  wait to see more of this from you.  ​http://gentequepresta.blogspot.com/2010/08/​​​

you can  say that green health is the best because it is all organic::  pittsburgh marketing agencies


Spot on  with this write-up, I really think this site wants a great deal more  consideration. I’ll likely to end up again to read a great deal more, thanks  for that info.​Weed Pipe​​​

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 673
  • ICQ: {icq}
23 July 2019 11:35

mtom

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 29.10.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
Hola i  would really love to subscribe and read your blog posts ; twitter video download


This is  really serious, You’re a significantly professional article writer. I have  signed up with your feed and also watch for finding your marvelous write-ups.  What’s more, I’ve shared your web blog of our own myspace.​8 month baby food chart​​​

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 673
  • ICQ: {icq}
26 July 2019 01:18

mtom

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 29.10.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
Basically  to follow up on the up-date of this topic on your web site and wish to let  you know simply how much I loved the time you took to generate this valuable  post. Within the post, you really spoke of how to actually handle this matter  with all ease. It would be my pleasure to collect some more ideas from your  web page and come as much as offer other people what I learned from you. Many  thanks for your usual terrific effort.  ​UnitedFinances.com​​​

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 673
  • ICQ: {icq}
27 July 2019 13:55

mtom

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 29.10.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
Very nice  post. I just stumbled upon your blog and wanted to say that I have really  enjoyed surfing around your blog posts. In any case I will be subscribing to  your feed and I hope you write again soon!  coin master free spins


I notice  there is certainly lots of spam on this blog.   Do you need help cleaning them up?   I might help between courses!​Hen Do's​​​

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 673
  • ICQ: {icq}
28 July 2019 15:39

mtom

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 29.10.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
very good  post, i definitely adore this amazing site, persist with it  Shopping center construction


Awesome  blog! Do you have any tips for aspiring writers? I’m hoping to start my own  site soon but I’m a little lost on everything. Would you advise starting with  a free platform like WordPress or go for a paid option? There are so many  choices out there that I’m totally overwhelmed .. Any suggestions? Thanks!​administrative law​​​

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 1 114
  • ICQ: {icq}
29 July 2019 13:22

mtom78632

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 6.08.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
A lot of thanks for all your valuable hard work on this blog. My aunt take interest in setting aside time for internet research and it’s really easy to understand why. I hear all regarding the compelling means you convey helpful tips and hints on your web site and as well as attract contribution from people on this area of interest while our princess is now becoming educated a lot of things. Enjoy the rest of the new year. Your conducting a fabulous job. voyance par telephone

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------------------------

I am usually to blogging we really appreciate your website content continuously. This content has truly peaks my interest. Let me bookmark your site and maintain checking achievable data. grow tent

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 673
  • ICQ: {icq}
30 July 2019 13:03

mtom

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 29.10.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
Hello! I  merely would choose to give you a large thumbs up for any excellent  information you have here during this post. I’ll be returning to your blog  site to get more detailed soon.  Pomeranian For Sale

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 673
  • ICQ: {icq}
31 July 2019 10:24

mtom

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 29.10.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
very nice  submit, i definitely love this web site, keep on it  UnitedFinances.com

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 1 114
  • ICQ: {icq}
31 July 2019 14:13

mtom78632

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 6.08.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
dog grooming is the specialty of my sister, she really loves grooming every dog in our house:: register online football

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
------------------------------------------------------------

A while the remarks are approved at promptly and sometime the comment predicted as comment spam or moderate it for approval. Do comply with blogs are very really hard to uncover and won’t be able to manage to reduce that our responses turn into spam and unapproved. There are several points. coin master free coins no survey

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 673
  • ICQ: {icq}
1 August 2019 15:16

mtom

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 29.10.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
Can I  recently say thats a relief to locate someone who in fact knows what theyre  preaching about on-line. You actually realize how to bring a challenge to  light making it critical. More people should check out this and see why side  of the story. I cant believe youre no more well-known simply because you  definitely possess the gift. ​how to fix pname com facebook orca​​​

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 1 114
  • ICQ: {icq}
3 August 2019 12:03

mtom78632

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 6.08.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
Wow, you seem to be very knowledgable about this kind of topics.~’:”.   토토사이트

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--------------------------------------------------------------

The the next time I just read a weblog, I really hope so it doesnt disappoint me around this place. What i’m saying is, It was my method to read, but I just thought youd have some thing interesting to say. All I hear can be a number of whining about something that you could fix when you werent too busy interested in attention. roaring girl

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 673
  • ICQ: {icq}
3 August 2019 14:38

mtom

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 29.10.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
The only  way to address and correct this inequity, at least from a North American  perspective (the Chinese have huge problems of their own), is to get people  living within their means. We need to become less of a no-down-payment,  no-interest, no payments until kingdom come culture to one that pays  according to what it can afford, best made in cash or at least nearer to my  grandfather’s idea of saving up for something you dearly want and don’t get  it until you have earned and saved the money. Buy  Instagram Followers

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 37
  • ICQ: {icq}
3 August 2019 15:54

nomanktnomankt

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 3.08.2019
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
I most  likely appreciating each and every bit of it. It is an incredible site and  decent impart. I need to much obliged. Great employment! You all do an  incredible blog, and have some extraordinary substance. Keep doing awesome.window tinting manchester

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 1 114
  • ICQ: {icq}
5 August 2019 21:12

mtom78632

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 6.08.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
Sweet blog! I found it while browsing on Yahoo News. Do you have any tips on how to get listed in Yahoo News? I’ve been trying for a while but I never seem to get there! Thank you 먹튀검증

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

Incredibly easily, the article is in reality the sweetest on this laudable topic. I agree with your conclusions and definitely will eagerly look forward to your approaching updates. Simply just saying thanks definitely will not simply be sufficient, for the enormous lucidity in your writing. I can promptly grab your rss feed to stay privy of any kind of updates. Nice work and also much success in your business efforts!building inspections north shore

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 673
  • ICQ: {icq}
5 August 2019 22:25

mtom

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 29.10.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
being a  blogger myself , i can see someone with great  potential,      ​https://www.itishome.in.th/hammer-of-thor/​​​

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 673
  • ICQ: {icq}
7 August 2019 01:25

mtom

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 29.10.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
Folks have  no clue that this is out there. Your thinking is crucial in assisting me with  my exploration. I’m hoping for one more write-up down these topics soon.  http://www.ryanfmc.co.uk/from-the-track-to-web-design-what-ive-picked-up/

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 1 114
  • ICQ: {icq}
8 August 2019 10:40

mtom78632

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 6.08.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
Aw, this became a very nice post. In idea I must set up writing similar to this additionally – spending time and actual effort to manufacture a great article… but what / things I say… I procrastinate alot through no means appear to go completed. 안전놀이터

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 673
  • ICQ: {icq}
8 August 2019 12:43

mtom

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 29.10.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
i am a  movie addict and i watch a lot of movie in just one night, the greatest movie  for me is Somewhere In Tome.  wired magazine


I would be  mendacity basically said i do not such as this article, in reality, I love  this a great deal I needed to place upward a discuss right here. I must state  maintain the good function, and that i will likely be arriving again for good  since I already bookmarked the actual page.​debt consolidation payday loan​​​

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 673
  • ICQ: {icq}
9 August 2019 21:03

mtom

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 29.10.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
woww..  your article is good. its helpful me.. keep posting buddy  ​scuba training fiji​​​

Information
Users of Guests are not allowed to comment this publication.