» » Land Tenure

 

Land Tenure

Author: nick on 13-09-2013, 20:00, views: 6 971

179

In the Ibibio area, where farming is the main occupation and there is relatively much land for farming activities, a farming cycle prevails in which the same piece of land is cultivated every fifth to seventh year, depending on the available land owned by the village. This system of farming, generally referred to as rotational bush fallow, is still being practised today, but the fallow period has been greatly reduced, because of the pressure on the land. The area of land farmed every year is divided into sections, each ekpuk (extended family) having its own section. The head of the family subdivides the family land to each male member at the beginning of each farming season.

 

The size of farmland for the various families differs and is indicated by permanent boundary mounds. Attempts to alter it have led to serious quarrels between families, or between individuals in the same family. By tradition, no family land can be sold outright to anybody outside or even within the family, but a member of the family can pledge his piece of land to some other person, inside or outside the family. In recent times, however, quite a number of people have defied this tradition and have sold their land or the whole family land to rich individuals for reasonable sums of money, transferring their, or the family, title over the land to the purchaser.

 

Apart from the family land, there are also other land holdings, belonging to the community or used as sacred groves, which cannot be tampered with by an individual. The following categories of land tenure are recognised in Ikot Abasi area:

 

a) Family land (Ikot Ufok): This is the ancestral land, inherited by members of the family. No piece of this land can be sold by any member of the family to anybody. An individual can, however, pledge his portion for a fee and the land is always redeemable when the money is refunded.

 

b) Pledged Land (Ikot Ubiong): As indicated above, this is the plot of land pledged by a man to another person, usually outside the family circle for a fee. The length of time pledged may or may not be fixed. Even if it is fixed, and the owner does not pay back the money to reclaim the land within the period, he cannot forfeit his right to the ownership of the land. The agreement is usually so elastic that children or grand children can still redeem the land, long after the death of the original people involved in the contract. It has been observed that when the period is rather too long, the amount involved and the proof of ownership may bring quarrels between two families, since no written records had been kept.

 

c) Borrowed land (Mmum Nkama Ikot): In this case, the farmland is given to a friend from another family, or a distant relation, who has no right to the ownership of the land. No fee is usually involved. The borrower may farm it for only one farming season, or for a much longer period, but the land has to be returned to the man or his children, whenever the request is made.

 

d) Rented Land (Nto Nwo): This land is given to a person to farm for a season, after the payment of a fee, which is not refundable. After harvesting, the land is vacated and given back to the owner.

 

e) Community Land (Ikot hong): This is the land that belongs to the entire village and no individual has any right to farm on the land without permission from the village council or council of chiefs, who are the custodians of all traditional lands. In some cases, the land is set aside for family cultural rites. There is a day set aside for general hunting on the land, and any animal killed is shared among the entire people in the village. The land is never cleared.

 

Communal Co-operation
 
Communal labour stimulated economic growth and development. The building of houses, making roof mats, clearing the paths and sources of water supply, sweeping the markets, making fishing nets, etc. were done through group work. Giving of loans or gifts to friends in time of need - especially at burials, marriages and initiation into cultural societies, in hardship or at bad harvest, assistance in labour or in kind, was a reciprocal and important social obligation.
 

f) Sacred Land or burial grounds (ho Ndem or Akai Ndem or Akai Ikot Okpoho): This is a forested land, set aside for shrines, burials and for the Ekpo and other societies, etc. It is never tampered with.

скачать dle 11.1смотреть фильмы бесплатно

Category: Tradition and Culture

Dear visitor, you are browsing our website as Guest.
We strongly recommend you to register and login to view hidden contents.
<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 1 114
  • ICQ: {icq}
16 March 2019 13:24

mtom78632

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 6.08.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
  You made  some decent points there. I looked online for that problem and found most  people goes coupled with with all your website.  microsoft azure  solutions




  Could  not thank you more than enough for the posts on your web-site. I know you  placed a lot of time and energy into all of them and really hope you know how  considerably I enjoy it. I hope I will do something identical for another  individual at some point.  Spanish  Transcription

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 1 114
  • ICQ: {icq}
18 March 2019 14:37

mtom78632

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 6.08.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
  investing  is tricky, sometimes you win and sometimes you loss. Risk takers win of  course..  tampa flooring  installation
 


 I  discovered your website  on the search  engines and appearance a number of your early posts. Continue to keep inside  the excellent operate. I just now extra increase your RSS feed to my MSN News  Reader. Looking for toward reading a lot more within you later on!…  Air Fryer Guide

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 673
  • ICQ: {icq}
18 March 2019 15:32

mtom

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 29.10.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
Terrific  review, among the list of much better articles Truly go through these days on  the net, I recommend to all or any.  gadget  store

Believed  invoking, and I will need to ponder this some more.. bookmarked. Hope to see  an update soon!dvd copy  service

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 673
  • ICQ: {icq}
19 March 2019 10:05

mtom

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 29.10.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
I  precisely wanted to appreciate you all over again. I do not know the things I  would have sorted out in the absence of the entire suggestions shown by you  concerning my problem. It was a difficult issue in my position, nevertheless  witnessing a new expert mode you dealt with that took me to weep over  gladness. I am happier for the help and as well , pray you realize what a  powerful job you were putting in training the rest through your site. Most  probably you haven’t met all of us.  Khayla  Token

When I  originally commented I clicked the -Notify me when new comments are added-  checkbox and now each time a comment is added I receive four emails with the  same comment. Can there be however you possibly can get rid of me from that  service? Thanks!안전놀이터

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 673
  • ICQ: {icq}
20 March 2019 15:00

mtom

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 29.10.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
I  discovered your website website on google and check many of your early posts.  Continue to keep within the really good operate. I merely additional increase  Feed to my MSN News Reader. Seeking toward reading a lot more of your stuff  at a later time!…https://www.amazon.com/dp/B07NDM1VGM

Our  technical SEO services help you match your site content to best Google  keywords top seo  company

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 1 114
  • ICQ: {icq}
21 March 2019 19:43

mtom78632

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 6.08.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
This  would be the appropriate blog for anybody who really wants to find out about  this topic. You are aware of so much its practically difficult to argue with  you (not too I really would want…HaHa). You certainly put a brand new spin on  the topic thats been revealed for years. Excellent stuff, just excellent!  Isaimini Moviesda South Movies




My  brother suggested I might like this website. He used to be totally right.  This submit actually made my day. You cann’t imagine just how a lot time I  had spent for this information! Thanks!  free v bucks


<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 673
  • ICQ: {icq}
22 March 2019 09:57

mtom

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 29.10.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
I come  across your blog from facebook and it is actually nice. Thnkx for giving this  sort of an incredible article!  get free  stuff online now



Deference  to  author , some  superb    entropy.​interest on car title loans​​​

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 1 114
  • ICQ: {icq}
22 March 2019 16:58

mtom78632

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 6.08.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
  It is  rare to discover a specialist in whom you might have some faith. In the world  these days, nobody genuinely cares about showing others exactly how in this  issue. How fortunate I am to have now found such a wonderful website as this.  It is people like you that make a genuine difference currently through the  suggestions they discuss.  Free Job Alert 2019
 

 I think  other web-site owners should take this website as a model – very clean and  excellent style and design, as well as the content. You are an inspriation in  this topic!  ketogenic  diet high blood pressure

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 1 114
  • ICQ: {icq}
23 March 2019 09:36

mtom78632

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 6.08.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
  watching  online movies has been my past time this month, i really enjoy it`  voyance-amour-eternel.com




  Spot lets  start work on this write-up, I actually feel this site requirements a great  deal more consideration. I’ll likely to end up again to see a great deal  more, many thanks for that information.  411  information online

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 1 114
  • ICQ: {icq}
24 March 2019 09:34

mtom78632

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 6.08.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
  Really  instructive and superb structure of articles, now that’s user friendly .  Weed store finder





  I saw  your post awhile back and saved it to my computer. Only recently have I got a  chance to checking it and have to tell you nice work.  batai internetu

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 673
  • ICQ: {icq}
25 March 2019 17:50

mtom

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 29.10.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
Your IRS  can even inform you of in the event the repay is actually postponed because  the device contains issues with your levy go back. commercial  general contractor

the  decorative accessories that i was able to find on ebay are of bargain price.interior  decorator

Appreciate  it for this  marvelous  post, I am glad I  observed   this website   on yahoo. Assistência  Técnica Apple Campinas

Real  informative   and   fantastic   anatomical  structure  of  subject material , now that’s user  pleasant .​Layarkaca21​​​

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 673
  • ICQ: {icq}
26 March 2019 18:19

mtom

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 29.10.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
We don’t  trust this amazing submit. Nevertheless, I saw it gazed for Digg along with  I’ve determined you could be appropriate so i ended up being imagining within  the completely wrong way. Persist with writing top quality stuff along these  lines.  animefreak



Thanks a  ton for your time and effort to have put these things together on this  weblog. Janet and i also very much appreciated your suggestions through your  articles on certain things. I know that you have a variety of demands on your  own program hence the fact that you took all the time just like you did to  guide people just like us by means of this article is also highly valued.https://biteHarvest.com

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 1 114
  • ICQ: {icq}
27 March 2019 16:58

mtom78632

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 6.08.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
  You made  some decent points there. I looked on the internet for the issue and found  most individuals will go along with with your website.  Jelly Copter Game
 




Keep up  the  wonderful  piece of work, I read few posts  on this   internet site  and I think  that your blog  is   really  interesting and  holds    bands of  fantastic   information.  online learning Arabic

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 673
  • ICQ: {icq}
27 March 2019 19:08

mtom

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 29.10.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
Some  really   interesting info  , well written and  loosely   user  genial . Free ads  Listing

Loving the  info   on this  web site , you have done  outstanding job on the  content .genesis  biology

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 673
  • ICQ: {icq}
28 March 2019 11:13

mtom

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 29.10.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
Great  points you made there in your article. Thanks for all your help in making a  change in the world.  Angie  Stone Weight Loss


Hi, best  wishes to you and your very nice blog,    jennifer aniston skin cream

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 1 114
  • ICQ: {icq}
28 March 2019 18:17

mtom78632

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 6.08.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
  Great  weblog here! Also your site lots up fast! What host are you the use of? Can I  am getting your affiliate hyperlink for your host? I wish my web site loaded  up as fast as yours lol  navigate to this website


Hi  there, just became alert to your blog through Google, and found that it is  truly informative. I’m going to watch out for brussels. I’ll be grateful if  you continue this in future. Lots of people will be benefited from your  writing. Cheers!  macam  macam celana dalam pria

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 673
  • ICQ: {icq}
29 March 2019 16:55

mtom

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 29.10.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
Can I  simply say what a relief to uncover somebody that in fact knows what theyre  preaching about online. You certainly learn how to bring a concern to light  and earn it essential. The best way to ought to check out this and understand  this side on the story. I cant think youre not more well-liked simply because  you undoubtedly hold the gift.Free Job  Posting Site


I’m not  sure exactly how I discovered your blog because I had been researching  information on Real Estate in Lake Mary, FL, but anyway, I have had a  pleasant time reading it, keep it up!black  friday 2019

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 673
  • ICQ: {icq}
30 March 2019 11:21

mtom

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 29.10.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
The  details on News is very much imptortant to us.Best touchscreen quad core i5 laptop


Keep up  the great piece of work, I read few posts on this web site and I think that  your blog is rattling interesting and has got bands of great information.stanford pelage playboost bonuses

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 1 114
  • ICQ: {icq}
30 March 2019 13:05

mtom78632

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 6.08.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
  This can  be a remarkably amazing powerful resource that you’re offering and you simply  provide it away cost-free!! I comparable to discovering websites ones  comprehend the particular importance of supplying you with a excellent  learning resource for zero cost. We truly dearly loved examining these pages.  Appreciate it!  Assignment help
  



Good  website! I truly love how it is nice on my eyes it is. I’m wondering how I  could be notified when a new post has been made. I have subscribed to your  RSS which may do the trick? Have a great day!  안전공원

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 673
  • ICQ: {icq}
31 March 2019 23:13

mtom

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 29.10.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
Youre so  cool! I dont suppose Ive learn something like this before. So nice to find  any individual with some authentic thoughts on this subject. realy thanks for  beginning this up. this web site is one thing that is wanted on the internet,  somebody with a bit originality. useful job for bringing something new to the  internet!  start keto  diet


Thanks a  lot for providing individuals with an exceptionally wonderful opportunity to  read in detail from this website. It’s always so pleasurable and full of a  good time for me personally and my office colleagues to search the blog  particularly thrice weekly to study the new items you will have. And of  course, we’re at all times pleased with your stunning tactics you give.  Selected two areas in this article are undeniably the most efficient we have  ever had.chat  dengan stranger

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 673
  • ICQ: {icq}
2 April 2019 23:08

mtom

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 29.10.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
Such a  well written post.. Thnkx for sharing this post !!  Also you can check my ??  UFABET

I like  this blog layout . How do you make it? Its so sweet!why now

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 673
  • ICQ: {icq}
3 April 2019 18:45

mtom

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 29.10.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
I am  curious to find out what blog system you have been using? I’m experiencing  some minor security issues with my latest website and I’d like to find  something more safe. Do you have any suggestions?  เลเซอร์กระชับช่องคลอด

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 1 114
  • ICQ: {icq}
4 April 2019 18:17

mtom78632

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 6.08.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
  I  precisely needed to thank you so much yet again. I do not know the things I  would’ve taken care of without these secrets contributed by you regarding  this problem. It seemed to be a very frightful crisis for me, but  encountering a new well-written tactic you processed it forced me to jump  with contentment. Now i am happier for the work and hope you are aware of an  amazing job you happen to be getting into educating people through your web  blog. Probably you haven’t come across any of us.  best  security camera system 2040
 




 I think  this is among the most vital info for me. And i’m glad reading your article.  But wanna remark on few general things, The website style is perfect, the  articles is really great  Good job,  cheers  Generator VS Alternator

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 673
  • ICQ: {icq}
5 April 2019 15:10

mtom

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 29.10.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
I  discovered your blog web site on google and test a few of your early posts.  Continue to keep up the superb operate. I simply extra up your RSS feed to my  MSN News Reader. In search of forward to studying extra from you afterward!…  poker  online


I  definitely wanted to post a simple remark in order to thank you for all the  unique tips and tricks you are giving out on this website. My incredibly long  internet search has finally been recognized with extremely good points to go  over with my company. I ‘d say that we readers are very blessed to exist in a  superb site with so many awesome people with good advice. I feel pretty happy  to have come across your entire website and look forward to tons of more  brilliant moments reading here. Thanks a lot once more for everything.​human hair braids​​​

You really  make it show up really easy using your presentation however i locate this  kind of issue being really something which I believe I might in no way  realize. It appears as well intricate and extremely great personally. My  partner and i’m taking a look in advance on your subsequent submit, We?|ll  attempt to get the hang on to than it! comprar  seguidores

I  like   looking through  and I think   this website got some   truly   utilitarian stuff on it!  .the  wordpress

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 673
  • ICQ: {icq}
6 April 2019 15:26

mtom

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 29.10.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
hi, good  day. i was just reading about this on our local website ‘ stock  charts technical analysis

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 1
  • ICQ: {icq}
8 April 2019 15:19

Businessleads

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 8.04.2019
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
Emailnphonelist is your go-to list broker for all your online business as well as consumer lists. We are a team of data brokers who started in 2011. Moreover, we are considered as one of the very few trusted mailing list brokers online for lead generation.
Find out more at:- https://emailnphonelist.com

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 673
  • ICQ: {icq}
8 April 2019 16:01

mtom

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 29.10.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
Oh my  goodness! a wonderful write-up dude. Thanks a lot However I will be  experiencing problem with ur rss . Do not know why Can not enroll in it.  Could there be everyone getting identical rss difficulty? Anybody who knows  kindly respond. Thnkx Glass Aluminium Services in Dubai

Thanks , I  have lately been searching for info about this topic for ages and yours may  be the ideal I’ve discovered till now. But, what about the conclusion? Are  you certain about the source?​feedback vagifirm​​​

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 673
  • ICQ: {icq}
9 April 2019 18:57

mtom

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 29.10.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
This will  be the right blog for everyone who is would like to discover this topic. You  recognize a great deal its virtually tricky to argue along with you (not that  I really would want…HaHa). You certainly put a brand new spin using a topic  thats been discussed for several years. Wonderful stuff, just wonderful!  mark ramer

You ought  to experience a contest first of the finest blogs on-line. I will suggest  this page!UFABET

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 1 114
  • ICQ: {icq}
10 April 2019 11:35

mtom78632

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 6.08.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
  I am  frequently to blogging we truly appreciate your content regularly. The  content has really peaks my interest. I’m going to bookmark your blog and  maintain checking choosing info.  payday loan consolidation 

 

Thanks so  much pertaining to giving me an update on this subject on your website.  Please understand that if a completely new post becomes available or in case  any improvements occur on the current submission, I would be interested in  reading more and knowing how to make good using of those strategies you talk  about. Thanks for your time and consideration of others by making this web  site available.  hotel in hale mo

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 673
  • ICQ: {icq}
10 April 2019 16:53

mtom

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 29.10.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
lol  a couple of the reviews bloggers write are silly and unrelated, there are  times i wonder whether they at all read the post before writing or whether  they just look at the subject of the blog post and compose the very first  thought that drifts to their minds. But it is great to see a intelligent  commentary every now and then in contrast to the exact same, traditional blog  bull which I too many times notice on the blogs. Regards  آموزش کسب درآمد در منزل


Thank  you for such a well written article.   It’s full of insightful information and entertaining  descriptions.  Your point of view is  the best among many.grandmums

Information
Users of Guests are not allowed to comment this publication.