Author: nick on 12-09-2013, 23:00, views: 8 519


Physical Map of Ikot Abasi Local Government Area (with Eastern Obolo)Physical Map of Ikot Abasi Local Government Area (with Eastern Obolo)Ikot Abasi Local Government Area (LGA), one of the 30 local government areas of Akwa Ibom State, is located on the south-western part of Akwa Ibom State. It is bordered by Oruk Anam Local Government Area in the north, Mkpat Enin Local Government Area in the west and the Eastern Obolo LGA on the Atlantic Ocean in the south. The Imo River forms the natural boundary in the east separating it from Rivers State. (Fig. 1). It covers an area of approximately, 451.73 sq. km.

Category: Physical Features and Natural Resources


Topography and Drainage

Author: nick on 12-09-2013, 22:00, views: 11 713


The region is flat and low-lying, but three major physiographic units can be identified from the terrain, the alluvial plains (mangrove and flood plains), the beach ridge sands and the rolling sandy plains.


The alluvial plains comprise mangrove swamps and fresh water flood plains. The mangrove swamps, which are drained by tidal brackish water, are found in the estuaries of Imo River, Uta Ewa (Jaja), Shooter and Qua Iboe Creeks and along the coastal fringes, separating the beach ridge sands from the upland coastal sandy plains. The fresh water flood plains are formed by the upper reaches of Imo River and a large network of creeks, the major ones being Essene, Uta Ewa (Jaja), Shooter and Qua Iboe Creeks. The area of alluvial plains is quite extensive, forming about 40 % of the total land mass of the LGA.


The beach ridge sand zone reaches from the mangrove mudflats towards the shoreline. The zone with its beautiful scenery is quite extensive around Okoroete, creating an attractive tourist resort. In the forties and early fifties, it used to attract a good number of Europeans from the upland areas to Ikot Abasi (Opobo). The tourist potential of the beautiful scenery of the beach sands needs to be explored.


The rolling sandy plains are located in the upland areas of the local government area, the topography is gently undulating plains, being part of the coastal plain sands of Calabar Formation. It occupies about 50 % of the land mass of the LGA. The area is drained by the Imo River and its tributaries, principally Essene Creek and numerous streams and rivulets. The Essene Creek is the most important physical feature in the area. It comes from the northern part, passing through Mkpat Enin LGA and moving southwards. Another creek (Ete Creek), which passes through Ukpum Ete and Okon territory, joins it near Urua Essen, at a confluence, usually referred to as Mkpat Ete - Mkpat Aya. The creek then flows into the Imo River at a point near Ikot Abasi. The tidal creek is navigable by launch at high tides and was a major transport route for the early European trade into the hinterland.

Category: Physical Features and Natural Resources


Geology and Soils

Author: nick on 12-09-2013, 21:00, views: 7 146


(a) The geological formations in the area consist of the Quaternary sedimentary deposits, and the Tertiary Coastal Plain Sands, generally referred to as Calabar Formation.


The Quaternary sediments give rise to alluvial plains as well as the beach ridge sands. The alluvial plains include the mangrove mudflats, which are under the influence of tidal brackish waters along the coast and in the estuaries of rivers and creeks, and the fresh water flood plains and swamps which form the wetland environments found along the upper reaches of rivers, creeks, tributaries and meander belts. The beach ridge sands form some raised portion of land between the mangrove swamps and the shoreline. The mangrove mudflats contain strata of mixed inorganic matters and plant debris.


In the water courses of the freshwater alluvium, the sandy materials consist of yellow/milky white silt to fine-grained sand particles that are sub-angular to sub-rounded.


The flood plains and inter tributary areas have light grey to dark carbonaceous mud and clay.


The Tertiary Coastal Plain Sand, or Calabar Formation is older and consists of beds of unconsolidated coarse textured sandstones, inter-bedded with layers of fine grained massive clay.


Category: Physical Features and Natural Resources



Author: nick on 12-09-2013, 20:00, views: 5 554


The climate of the area is that of humid tropic. Temperatures are high, lying between 26 °C and 28 °C, rainfall is heavy and the mean annual rainfall lies between 2,000-4,000 mm. Rain falls throughout the year. The rainy season lasts from April to November and is characterised by high relative humidity and heavy cloud covers. The area may experience a short break, generally known as August Break, during the long rainy season. This is a short period of dryness of about two weeks, usually occurring in August. The dry season proper begins in November and ends in March. Harmattan is experienced in December and January. The harsh hot tropical climatic conditions are moderated by the coastal location of the area.

Category: Physical Features and Natural Resources



Author: nick on 12-09-2013, 19:00, views: 23 822


Vegetation Map of Ikot Abasi AreaVegetation Map of Ikot Abasi AreaThe whole of Akwa Ibom State is situated in the tropical forest zone. The forest vegetation can be divided into three types, namely: Mangrove forest along the coast and river estuaries; Fresh water swamp forest and Rainforest proper.


Mangrove Forest


Ikot Abasi Local Government Area has all the three forest types. Mangrove forest is quite extensive, covering the entire coastal area of the local government area and the estuaries of Imo River and Jaja, Qua Iboe and Shooter's creeks. The mangrove species, identified in the area, include Rhizhophora racemosa, Rhizophora mangle and Rhizophora harrisonii, as well as Avicenia nitida. The most abundant species is Rhizohora racemosa, which can grow to a height of 30 m and above. It has been observed that quite a reasonable portion of the mangrove swamp has been taken over by the Nypa palm. This palm has been found to out-compete the mangrove trees in the brackish environments of the river estuaries. In Ikot Abasi township wetland areas, almost all the brackish mangrove areas have been taken over by the Nypa palm growth.


Category: Physical Features and Natural Resources



Author: nick on 12-09-2013, 18:00, views: 10 215


Plantain farm with fruit and blossomPlantain farm with fruit and blossomPlantain farm with fruit and blossomPlantain farm with fruit and blossom

Farming is the main occupation of most of the people. Apart from the Obolo people, who occupy scattered fishing posts along the coastal area, and who are traditionally fishermen, all the upland Ibibio people are engaged in farming as a means of livelihood.


Most of the farming is carried out in the Acid Sands of the upland area, are low-fertile. The crops grown are those that can thrive in acid soils. The important crops grown are as siven below:


Category: Physical Features and Natural Resources



Author: nick on 12-09-2013, 17:00, views: 64 076


Fishing was practised by the Andoni and the coastal Ibibio people. Nets, traps, hooks and bamboo fences were the main fishing gear (Ejituwu, 1991: 48-49). A variety of fish were caught. These were sold fresh, or after they had been smoked, in local or long distance markets (Ibid.). The Andoni people, both men and women, were, and still are, fully engaged in fishing. The men use nets, traps and bamboo fences as fishing gear and harvest their fishing grounds or wander into the high seas for long periods, catching various grades and types of fish. The women confine themselves to the small creeks and the mangrove swamps, catching crayfish and lobsters.


Fishing Methods

1. Casting net: weighted with lead or broken pottery; thrown from a canoe and gathered by pulling the string, which is strung along the opening.  Casting net
2. Drag net with floats (wood, calabash, etc.): spread out at night and drawn every half hour or so to remove fish caught in it.  Drag net with floats (wood, calabash, etc.)
3. Bamboo trap: placed on a sand bank at low tide-
in such a way that the high tide covers it and the receding water leaves fish trapped inside.

Bamboo trap

4. Bamboo stick fence: erected on sandy bars when covered by high water, directs bigger fish into bamboo traps (a, b) as the water runs out to the ocean.  Bamboo stick fence
(after Cheesman, 1932; and Jeffreys, 1966).

Category: Physical Features and Natural Resources



Author: nick on 12-09-2013, 16:00, views: 5 989


Keeping of livestock was common in the area in the past. It was traditional for each household to keep goats, chicken and sheep. In modern times this practice has largely disappeared, resulting in shortage of livestock in the market. Livestock keeping is mostly handled by the women in the family, with the children help to supply the herbage. The goats or sheep are kept tethered in the house during the growing of the crops in the nearby farms in order to prevent the crops from being destroyed. Keeping of pigs is rare and is usually done by men who also keep the sheep. Cats are kept to drive away rats, while dogs are kept mainly to guard the household and for hunting. It is a taboo for people in the area to eat the meat of dogs or cats, although some of them now enjoy the dog meat.


The main types of domestic poultry kept by the Ikot Abasi people are chicken and ducks, the former being more common. Generally, the chicken are of local breed, with poor productive traits, like low egg production, small egg size, slow growth rate and poor feed conversion efficiency. The birds are let loose in the morning and, in the evening, they find their way back to the house.

Category: Physical Features and Natural Resources


Wildlife Hunting and 'Bush meat' Procurement

Author: nick on 12-09-2013, 15:00, views: 7 140


African Antelopes (edop) (Courtesy: NCF)African Antelopes (edop) (Courtesy: NCF)Wildlife hunting used to be the profession of brave men. It was done either at night, or during the day time. Special dogs were trained for the hunting, which, upon encountering a wild animal would bark to draw the attention of the hunter to the spot, while, at the same time, preventing the animal from escaping. The hunter would then come with his gun to shoot the animal. During night hunting, the hunters use a special type of lantern (ikang iso), attached to their forehead, the light of which would dazzle the animal and make it stand still, making it easy for the hunter to shoot and kill it.


Another effective method of catching wildlife, is the use of traps. These are set on identified routes of wildlife passage by expert trap setters. A bait, such as a cassava tuber, may be used to attract the animal to the trap.


Bush meat is highly valued and, generally, costs more per unit weight than that of the domestic animal. In recent times, the production of bush meat in the area has been drastically reduced. This is attributed, principally, to the forest destruction for farming, urban development and industrialisation, which reduces the natural habitat of the animals. The number and diversity of the wildlife have been greatly reduced, some species becoming almost extinct. Also, the number of experienced hunters and trap setters has also greatly reduced.

Category: Physical Features and Natural Resources



Author: nick on 12-09-2013, 14:00, views: 10 381


Access road and water tank for potable water, provided by OMPADEC at Bethlehem village, Eastern Obolo. The road is passable during the dry season; the tank is yet to be connected.Access road and water tank for potable water, provided by OMPADEC at Bethlehem village, Eastern Obolo. The road is passable during the dry season; the tank is yet to be connected.Solid Mineral


There has been no important solid mineral discovered so far in the local government area. However, a high grade silica glass sand is abundant on the beaches, coastal plain areas and in the river beds. It could be used as the major raw material for the manufacture of various glass products, like glass bottles, glass sheet, drinking glasses, mirrors, laboratory glassware and optical lenses. It is also useful in the moulding of cement blocks and the production of concrete and in foundry, abrasive, oil and gas industries.


There are also clay deposits in the area, although it has not yet been confirmed whether the deposits are in commercial quantities to support a ceramic industry. The deposits found in the Ikot Etenge Ete and Iman have been used in the traditional pottery industries.


Crude Oil and Natural Gas


Ikot Abasi Local Government is a major oil producing area, having both on-shore and off-shore fields. It also has a large gas deposit. The only on-shore production in the state is Utapate field near Iko, which used to produce up to 10,000 barrels per day. It is owned by the Shell Petroleum Development Company of Nigeria Pic. Two companies, Mobil Producing Nigeria Unlimited and Elf, are involved in off-shore production in the local government area territorial waters. A rough breakdown of the oil production in the area is as given below:




FieldProduction level (bpd)Company
Utapate (on-shore) 10,000 SPDC
Adua (off-shore) 10,600 Mobil
Asabo (off-shore) 28,150 Mobil
Ekpe (off-shore) 9,250 Mobil
Ekpe WW 7,530 Mobil
Usari - Elf
Obu - Elf
Edikan 16,856 Elf
Odudu 15,660 Elf
Ime 4,890 Elf
Afia 21,468 Elf

Category: Physical Features and Natural Resources