Warfare

Author: nick on 14-09-2013, 22:00, views: 12 524

122

War Conflict
 
The people of Ikpa and Ukpum are of two different Ibibio clans, which constitute a greater part of Ikot Abasi Local Government Area today. In the early days of their settlement in the area, they formed the two major power blocks, with the Ukpum driving a wedge between the eastern Ikpa (now in Mkpat Enin Local Government Area) and the ones in the east of Ikot Abasi area. The conflicts between these two groups were often occasioned by their desire to expand their frontiers. In one of the wars between Ikpa Nnung Assang and Ukpum Okon, supported by Ukpum Minya warriors, the outcome was in favour of Ikpa Nnung Assang (Essene). However, to forestall subsequent confrontations between the two neighbours, i. e. the Ikpa and the Ukpum, an understanding was reached and the present boundary between Ikpa Nnung Assang (Essene) and Ukpum Okon/Minya was established. A few of the canons, used in the war by the Nnung Assang people, can still be found in Essene Town.
 
(I. Usoh, 1996)

The territorial expansion embarked upon by each clan, often at the expense of other clans, brought the clans into constant conflicts. Inter-Clan wars were, therefore, common (Ufot, 1985: 30-36). Until their contacts with the Europeans, which enabled them to acquire some fire arms, their main weapons of war were sticks, spears, bows and arrows.

 

No clan also had a standing army. Accordingly, a force of able-bodied men was often hurriedly raised in times of war. The men so recruited were tested for fitness by the priests of the traditional religion. Those who passed the test underwent some vigorous physical training and protection rituals before they were sent to the battle field. War had a definite code of conduct and rules governing the declaration of war, time and place of battle, truce, peace-making and intermediaries' immunity, security of women, children, crops and water sources (Ekong, 1983: 52-54).

 

War captives were sold into slavery, or sacrificed to the gods, or made servants to the chiefs. All war booties were shared among the elders and the fighting men. And any warrior who brought back a human head from the battle field, as a symbol of his courage, was greeted with great honour (Ibid.) and was entitled to special burial rites and a memorial shrine after his death. Even though the clans fight against one another, they generally maintained friendly relations among themselves. Inter-clan marriage, for instance, was practised. People of different clans also exchanged gifts and ideas and often named their children after their friends outside their clans (Ibid.).

скачать dle 11.1смотреть фильмы бесплатно

Category: Early History and Trade Contacts

Dear visitor, you are browsing our website as Guest.
We strongly recommend you to register and login to view hidden contents.
<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 360
  • ICQ: {icq}
16 August 2018 09:38

Robinjack

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 11.09.2017
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
I have found your article very informative and interesting. I appreciate your points of view and I agree with so many. You’ve done a great job with making this clear enough for anyone to understand. where to buy cbd oil

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 212
  • ICQ: {icq}
24 August 2018 14:56

stunnera1234

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 14.11.2017
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
I am happy to find this post very useful for me, as it contains lot of information. I always prefer to read the quality content and this thing i found in you post. Thanks for sharing. best music downloader for android

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 212
  • ICQ: {icq}
25 August 2018 16:09

stunnera1234

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 14.11.2017
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
A debt of gratitude is in order for sharing this superb article.i utilize this article to demonstrate my task in college.it is valuable for me great work.  123movies    


Very good written article. It will likely be supportive to everyone who utilizes it, including me. Keep doing what you're doing – can’r wait to study more posts. guide

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 360
  • ICQ: {icq}
25 August 2018 17:01

Robinjack

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 11.09.2017
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
Incredible post, you have pointed out some fabulous focuses , I similarly think this s an exceptionally magnificent site. matka i am continually searching for some free stuffs over the web. there are additionally a few organizations which gives free examples. high risk merchant payment gateway

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 212
  • ICQ: {icq}
30 August 2018 16:39

stunnera1234

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 14.11.2017
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
I discovered your this post while hunting down some related data on online journal search...its a decent post..keep posting and redesign the data.  https://edublogger.org/

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 212
  • ICQ: {icq}
11 September 2018 01:10

stunnera1234

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 14.11.2017
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
Extremely fascinating online journal. Alot of websites i see nowadays don't generally give anything that i'm keen on, yet i'm most definately intrigued by this one. Recently believed that i would post and let you know.  ShowBox app

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 360
  • ICQ: {icq}
11 September 2018 18:29

Robinjack

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 11.09.2017
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
The subsequent time I  read a weblog, I hope that it doesnt disappoint me as a lot as this one. I  mean, I know it was my option to read, but I truly thought youd have  something attention-grabbing to say. All I hear is a bunch of whining about  something that you possibly can repair should you werent too busy on the  lookout for attention.  Free Online Seo Tools

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 360
  • ICQ: {icq}
13 September 2018 17:13

Robinjack

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 11.09.2017
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
When I originally  commented I clicked the -Notify me when new surveys are added- checkbox and  now every time a comment is added I get four emails sticking with the same  comment. Possibly there is by any means you are able to get rid of me from  that service? Thanks!  PDF to HTML

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 20
  • ICQ: {icq}
15 September 2018 10:14

peterseo

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 3.01.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
Much  thanks for keep this data.   http://getbusinesstoday.com/

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 20
  • ICQ: {icq}
16 September 2018 15:01

peterseo

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 3.01.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
I am glad  to locate your recognized method for composing the post. Presently you make  it simple for me to comprehend and actualize the idea. Much obliged to you  for the post.   Transportation

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 360
  • ICQ: {icq}
22 September 2018 11:09

Robinjack

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 11.09.2017
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
A debt of  gratitude is in order for setting aside an ideal opportunity to talk about  this, I feel firmly about it and love adapting more on this subject. Transportation

You  completed a number of nice points there. I did a search on the issue and  found nearly all people will have the same opinion with your blog.Accounts

I’ve been  exploring for a little for any high quality articles or blog posts on this  kind of area . Exploring in Yahoo I at last stumbled upon this website.  Reading this info So i’m happy to convey that I’ve a very good uncanny  feeling I discovered just what I needed. I most certainly will make sure to  don’t forget this website and give it a look regularly.  Global store

Aw, this  was a very nice post. In thought I want to put in writing like this moreover  ?taking time and actual effort to make a very good article?however what can I  say?I procrastinate alot and certainly not appear to get one thing done.Personal Skill development

This  internet site is often a walk-through rather than the details you wanted  about it and didn’t know who ought to. Glimpse here, and you’ll certainly  discover it.Addiction treatment

The next  time I read a blog, I hope that it doesnt disappoint me as much as this one.  I mean, I know it was my choice to read, but I actually thought youd have  something interesting to say. All I hear is a bunch of whining about  something that you could fix if you werent too busy looking for attention.Mobile



This  sounds in a way inflammatory pending me…can’t wait for this…thank you!Global store

I went  over this  web site  and I   believe  you have a lot of  fantastic   info  ,  saved to bookmarks  (:.Global store

we are  using plastic kitchen faucets at home because they are very cheap and you can  easily replace them if they broke,.Personal Skill development

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 20
  • ICQ: {icq}
26 September 2018 12:18

peterseo

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 3.01.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
This is  really an extraordinary read for me. I have bookmarked it and I am  anticipating perusing new articles. Keep doing awesome!.   Rapid  Tone

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 360
  • ICQ: {icq}
30 September 2018 12:34

Robinjack

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 11.09.2017
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
Vancouver SEO Agency offers complete business listings that let you have dofollow links. This is great for your business and drives up your sites rankings. SEO Vancouver Aero Kitchen Cabinets and Bathroom Vanities is a great place to start to look for your new kitchen cabinets and renovations. Looking for a quality Vancouver custom kitchen cabinets company that will start and finish your project with great detail. We make your dream kitchen at competitive pricing all while building trust and beautiful kitchens in Vancouver and surrounding areas. We are located centrally in Burnaby and can walk you through our shop where we manufacture custom kitchens for our clients. Kitchen Cabinets Vancouver

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 212
  • ICQ: {icq}
2 October 2018 13:04

stunnera1234

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 14.11.2017
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
Keep doing awesome read few posts on this site and i imagine that your online journal is exceptionally fascinating and has sets of phenomenal data.  voyance amour

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 20
  • ICQ: {icq}
2 October 2018 14:56

peterseo

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 3.01.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
I truly  cherished perusing your online journal. It was extremely very much composed  and straightforward. Not at all like different online journals I have perused  which are truly not that good.Thanks alot!   http://bestbusinesscommunity.com/maximize-your-money-by-checking-australian-sus
tainable-property-portfolios/


There is  such a great amount in this article I would never have considered all alone.  Your substance gives perusers things to consider in a fascinating way. Much  obliged to you for your reasonable data.   http://tradeonlinemarket.com/planning-to-invest-your-money-for-sustainable-prop
erty-portfolios-fund/

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 789
  • ICQ: {icq}
9 October 2018 20:22

seoexpert

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 22.06.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
Thanks  for another wonderful post. Where else  could anybody get that type of info in such an ideal way of writing? casino extra

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 789
  • ICQ: {icq}
10 October 2018 18:05

seoexpert

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 22.06.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
Such a appears to be  fully very best. Each one of these very little facts usually are constructed  combined with many qualifications facts. I prefer of which a whole bunch.duelz casino

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 20
  • ICQ: {icq}
22 October 2018 09:44

peterseo

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 3.01.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
I'm truly  enjoying the design and layout of your site. It's a very easy on the eyes  which makes it much more pleasant for me to come here and visit more often.  Did you hire out a designer to create your theme? Superb work!movers  packers in pune

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 360
  • ICQ: {icq}
25 November 2018 10:25

Robinjack

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 11.09.2017
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
You can  also put a chatbox on your blog for more interactivity among readers.’*.’;Electronics devices

There is  noticeably big money to comprehend this. I suppose you’ve made certain nice  points in functions also.Class of action industries

You  produced some decent points there. I looked on the internet for the problem  and discovered most individuals go in addition to with all your website.What is accounting principles

i support  herbal products because they are all natural and from what i know, they do  not carry nasty side effects..Latest fashion trends 2019

I am  pleased   that I  noticed this  site , just   the right information   that I was   searching  for! .Travel tips and tricks

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 212
  • ICQ: {icq}
4 December 2018 00:25

stunnera1234

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 14.11.2017
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
I havent  any word to value this post.....Really i am inspired from this post....the  individual who make this post it was an extraordinary human..thanks for  imparted this to us. IPTV Resellers

<
  • Articles: 4
  • Comments: 666
  • ICQ: {icq}
4 December 2018 13:26

attaseo

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 20.11.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
This approach is  visually really most suitable. Every single one of microscopic highlights are  intended by means of a number of heritage skills. I recommend the software  quite a lot engineered parquet flooring

<
  • Articles: 4
  • Comments: 666
  • ICQ: {icq}
5 December 2018 15:31

attaseo

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 20.11.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
That's look into you ought to special groundwork ahead of when authoring. Shall be likely that will even more alluring blog post through this industry.http://www.growtallerbook.org/

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 789
  • ICQ: {icq}
10 December 2018 15:04

seoexpert

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 22.06.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
I can’t imagine  focusing long enough to research; much less write this kind of article.  You’ve outdone yourself with this  material.  This is great content.Poker88

<
  • Articles: 4
  • Comments: 666
  • ICQ: {icq}
25 December 2018 14:51

attaseo

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 20.11.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
My  partner and i favour your overall write-up. It could be great to look at any  person describe inside terms from the aerobic in addition to lucidity because  of this essential problem could be swiftly noticed.  Hindi lessons in delhi

<
  • Articles: 4
  • Comments: 666
  • ICQ: {icq}
30 December 2018 11:36

attaseo

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 20.11.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
I recently came across your blog and have been reading along. I thought I would leave my first comment. I don’t know what to say except that I have enjoyed reading.behance.ne

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 789
  • ICQ: {icq}
7 January 2019 12:01

seoexpert

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 22.06.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
This is just the information I am finding everywhere. Thanks for your blog, I just subscribe your blog. This is a nice blog..Social Media Service

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 2
  • ICQ: {icq}
8 January 2019 07:37

NairobiDivas

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 8.01.2019
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
Great stuffs on this site. Nairobi Divas

Amazing post which is detailed and awesome. ​Nairobi Divas is the best Escort site in Kenya​​​

Allow us to comment you ​Utamu escorts​​​

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 2
  • ICQ: {icq}
11 January 2019 16:55

NairobiDivas

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 8.01.2019
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
I wish I can write such a long but relevant post on my niche. Loved reading it. Nairobi raha and ​Nairobi Sweet​​​ 

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 212
  • ICQ: {icq}
12 January 2019 16:09

stunnera1234

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 14.11.2017
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
I am relishing your website. I as well  are an ambitious web site writer however I am still a new comer to the whole  thing. Do you possess any suggestions regarding first-time blog writers I’d  definitely appreciate it… OMG how about Gaddafi incredible news flash. Thx !  Chlorine Water Treatment Instant  Instagram Likes

<
  • Articles: 4
  • Comments: 666
  • ICQ: {icq}
13 January 2019 13:41

attaseo

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 20.11.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
This unique in fact perhaps even a very good arrange that i believe it or not in fact really enjoyed looking into. It is not necessarily consequently routine that i range from the substitute for verify a precise detail.hotels near airport kansas city

Information
Users of Guests are not allowed to comment this publication.