» » The Advent of Colonial Rule

 

The Advent of Colonial Rule

Author: nick on 14-09-2013, 16:00, views: 6 982

503

British Protectorates in Nigeria (Source: Nig. Historical Atlas)British Protectorates in Nigeria (Source: Nig. Historical Atlas)The Jaja episode marked the beginning of the gradual dismantling of the sovereignty of the people and rulers of Southern Nigeria. The field, says Ikime, was now left for British economic and political manoeuvres (Ikime, 1981: 158).

 

Before Jaja's exile, the Niger Company had, in 1886, received a Royal Charter and become the Royal Niger Company. The Company took over from the Niger District Protectorate the corridor from the mouth of the Niger to the confluence as well as the territories on both banks of the Benue (Ejituwu, 1991: 158). In 1889, the remaining area under the protectorate, after the excision was renamed the Oil Rivers Protectorate with headquarters located at Calabar (Afigbo, 1972: 320).

 

Acquisition of territories in Africa was now regarded in official circles as indispensable to British prosperity, employment and prestige as a world power (Uzoigwe, 1975: 25). In 1891, Sir Claude Maxwell MacDonald was appointed Commissioner and Consul-General for the Oil Rivers Protectorate. He was instructed to develop trade, promote civilisation and pave the way for placing the territories over which Her Majesty's Protectorate is and may be extended directly under British rule (MacDonald, 1895).

 

In 1893, the Oil Rivers Protectorate was renamed the Niger Coast Protectorate with additional territory excised from the area controlled by the Royal Niger Company and given further instructions to open the country, push the trade and hoist the flag (Anene and Brown, 1966: 313).

 

MacDonald wasted no time in carrying out the instructions. In 1892, he created administrative units called Vice-Consulate Districts around important rivers, such as Calabar, Bonny, Opobo, and Brass, and appointed vice-consuls to administer them. To assist the vice-consuls in their work, he also set up a constabulary and introduced indirect taxation in the form of customs duties in the protectorate.

 

The vice-consuls were given the duties of cultivating and maintaining friendly relations with the native people, opening up roads and markets and generally preserving peace and order in their respective areas. They were also responsible for the proper working of the Customs, Postal and Treasury Departments in their areas of jurisdiction (MacDonald, 1895).

 

1890 Trade Regulations on the Opobo River On September 1st, 1890, the Acting British Consul, George Annesley, issued Regulations for the maintenance of Peace and Order in the District of Opobo, reconstituting the Governing Council on the Opobo River, and making the trading agents responsible for the peace and discipline on their factory beaches, and the native chiefs - for the behaviour of their 'boys'.
 
The importation of modern weapons and the export of slaves were prohibited.
 
The river was open to trade by all nationals and export duty, paid by both foreign and native traders alike, was to be collected by the President of the Governing Council. He was Johannes Gierl, a German leading trading agent on the river and Chairman of the African Association traders, who was highly respected by all for his long experience, kind-heartedness and fairness. Other members were:
 
European Members / Trading Agents Native Members / Opobo Chiefs
F. D. Mitchell
Robert Foster
A. B. Hallowell
W. Bruce
R. N. Williams
Arthur C. Hewitt
Chief Cookey Gam
Chief John Africa
Chief Fine Bone
Chief Ogolo Annie Pepple
Chief John Black Foobra
Chief Oko Jaja
Chief Samuel Toby
  FO 84/2020 (Source: Jaja, 1991: 65-68

1890 Trade Regulations on the Opobo River On September 1st, 1890, the Acting British Consul, George Annesley, issued Regulations for the maintenance of Peace and Order in the District of Opobo, reconstituting the Governing Council on the Opobo River, and making the trading agents responsible for the peace and discipline on their factory beaches, and the native chiefs - for the behaviour of their 'boys'.

 

The importation of modern weapons and the export of slaves were prohibited.

 

The river was open to trade by all nationals and export duty, paid by both foreign and native traders alike, was to be collected by the President of the Governing Council. He was Johannes Gierl, a German leading trading agent on the river and Chairman of the African Association traders, who was highly respected by all for his long experience, kind-heartedness and fairness. Other members were:

 

European Members / Trading Agents Native Members / Opobo Chiefs

F. D. Mitchell
Robert Foster
A. B. Hallowell
W. Bruce
R. N. Williams
Arthur C. Hewitt

Chief Cookey Gam
Chief John Africa
Chief Fine Bone
Chief Ogolo Annie Pepple
Chief John Black Foobra
Chief Oko Jaja
Chief Samuel Toby
 
FO 84/2020 (Source: Jaja, 1991: 65-68)

 

In Opobo River, a Vice-Consulate or Administrative District Headquarters was established at Norah Beach at the mouth of Ikot Abasi River with William Cairn Armstrong as vice-consul. The area of jurisdiction of the district covered not only Opobo Town and Ikot Abasi area up to Essene market, but also extended to Akwete in the Upper Imo River (Cheesman, 1932 A: 13). Norah Beach remained the administrative centre of the district till 1902, when it was replaced by Egwanga on the Ikot Abasi bank of the river (Ibid.: 14).

 

The Vice-Consul, W. C. Armstrong, is said to have done much to advance the political and economic interest of the Niger Coast Protectorate in Opobo District. Under his administration, law and order was maintained. The administration of government worked well. Trade and consequent revenue increased to a very considerable amount. Sanitation was well maintained and the Church Missionary Society was established in Opobo Town. In fact, Armstrong is reported to have worked so well that before his death on January 3, 1895, much had been done to create good feelings among the Opobo chiefs towards the Protectorate Government. The amount of trade done in the Opobo River (District) very nearly approached that done in the whole of the much larger District of Old Calabar and the grateful Opobo chiefs contributed money towards erecting a monument on his grave there (MacDonald, 1895).

 

Exploration of the hinterland of the new Opobo District was undertaken by Roger Casement, an official of the Niger Coast Protectorate, in 1894. His attempt to explore the area through Itu having failed, he returned to Calabar from where he trekked through Opobo (Egwanga) to Essene, Ibekwe Akpan Nya, Efa, Mbioto and Ikot Osong, before returning to Opobo (Ibid.).

 

The following year, 1895, the Vice-Consulates in the Niger Coast Protectorate were grouped into three large divisions, namely, Eastern, Central and Western, with headquarters at Calabar, Bonny and Warri, respectively. Opobo District came under Calabar Division (Afigbo, 1972: 414; Ikime, 1980: 414). The Niger Coast Protectorate Force was also employed during the period 1894-95 in several expeditions in the hinterland of Ikot Abasi and Qua Iboe Rivers (Casement, 1895: 233). The net result of all these developments was that by 1895 effective British influence - commercial and political - had been firmly established in Opobo District.

 

MacDonald was succeeded as Consul General by Sir Ralph Moor in 1896. Under Moor, a series of military expeditions were conducted in the Niger Coast Protectorate, almost continuously, from 1896 to 1900. With the revocation of the Charter of the Royal Niger Company at the end of 1899, the company ceased to possess administrative rights. Territories formerly belonging to the company, together with the territories of the Niger Coast Protectorate were in 1900 organised as the Protectorate of Southern Nigeria with headquarters at Calabar and with Sir Ralph Moor as High Commissioner (Ikime, 1972: 65-66). Opobo District then became part of the new Protectorate of Southern Nigeria.

скачать dle 11.1смотреть фильмы бесплатно

Category: Early History and Trade Contacts

Dear visitor, you are browsing our website as Guest.
We strongly recommend you to register and login to view hidden contents.
<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 98
  • ICQ: {icq}
22 December 2019 15:42

burri60

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 15.08.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
How  beautifully all the feelings have been conveyed through writing.airhelp customer review

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 98
  • ICQ: {icq}
23 December 2019 23:31

burri60

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 15.08.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
The writer,  through this blog, has earned respect from many for all the right reasons.medicallyminded.com

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 98
  • ICQ: {icq}
25 December 2019 15:54

burri60

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 15.08.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
Can't think, how a  man can compose such astonishing stuff.download dailymotion videos

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 98
  • ICQ: {icq}
5 January 2020 23:25

burri60

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 15.08.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
Winery  Cyprus|Winery Limassol| vlassideswinery.com is a great spot to visit!  Located at Kilani village (Limassol), is a  tourist attraction and a must for wine lovers, so that you can taste Cyprus  red and white wine.Winery Cyprus

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 98
  • ICQ: {icq}
6 January 2020 23:04

burri60

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 15.08.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
Villas for rent in  Cyprus (Ayia Napa and Protaras) have just been inspected by our professional  team at http://www.rentvillacyprus.net and are expecting you and your family  to join in the fun!  360 days a year of  Cyprus sunshine!!Villas for rent in Cyprus

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 98
  • ICQ: {icq}
7 January 2020 17:09

burri60

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 15.08.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
Cherish the way  eminently every word is created with real change.chinese copies famous paintings

The blog resembles  a sea, I wish to suffocate in.used cars for sale in nigeria

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 98
  • ICQ: {icq}
9 January 2020 23:49

burri60

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 15.08.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
How  beautifully all the feelings have been conveyed through writing.payformathhomework.com

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 1
  • ICQ: {icq}
14 January 2020 19:07

scottsdalehorseshowlive

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 14.01.2020
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
Arabian Horse Show Scottsdale can be a base where lots of very important products will likely be displayed. Many of these are typically about Pets, Equestrian, Equestrian Sports, Horse Riding, Horse and Horse Sports.

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 98
  • ICQ: {icq}
14 January 2020 23:30

burri60

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 15.08.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
After  reading such amazing writings, your heart gets energized.parc canberra

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 1
  • ICQ: {icq}
17 January 2020 01:00

wchimney

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 17.01.2020
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
History is so important.  I hated it when I was in school because I didn't see the value at the time.  I was too busy looking ahead.  Thanks for the info!  If you need a chimney sweep wilmington, de , check us out.

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 98
  • ICQ: {icq}
18 January 2020 14:32

burri60

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 15.08.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
The  blog is like an ocean, I wish to drown in.electronicpublisher

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 98
  • ICQ: {icq}
19 January 2020 00:32

burri60

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 15.08.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
A  getting a handle on splendidly formed blog. Truly a present for its social  affair of individuals.www.cyclonesellers.com

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 98
  • ICQ: {icq}
27 January 2020 17:26

burri60

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 15.08.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
Superlative style  of writing that every new blogger aspires to have.new launch condo

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 8
  • ICQ: {icq}
30 January 2020 17:36

jackclark

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 21.10.2019
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
http://qqidnpoker.me/
The web  site is lovingly serviced and saved as much as date. So it should be, thanks  for sharing this with us.

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 98
  • ICQ: {icq}
3 February 2020 16:18

burri60

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 15.08.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
Mmm..  estimable to be here in your report or notify, whatever, I repute I should  moreover process strong for my have website want I play some salubrious  further updated busy in your location.rv altitude

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 98
  • ICQ: {icq}
4 February 2020 17:12

burri60

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 15.08.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
Make the  most of mainly premium substances - you will find him or her for:florence residences

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 98
  • ICQ: {icq}
9 February 2020 15:56

burri60

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 15.08.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
I and my partners  have totally taken pleasure in this blog.Schmuck

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 98
  • ICQ: {icq}
11 February 2020 19:41

burri60

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 15.08.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
The  blog writings were so nice, I wished they neever ended.piermont grand ec

We require all the  more such articles that we can read with such excitement.sengkang grand

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 20
  • ICQ: {icq}
12 February 2020 10:41

Celikermakina

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 12.02.2020
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
Çeliker Makina San. TİC.LTD.ŞTİ 10 Tona kadar kaldırma sırasında -Bir çok parça yağ içinde çalıştığından aşınma ve yıpranma çok azdır. -Kullanılan yağ çok uzun ömürlüdür. -Halat kullanılan kasnak ve halatlarda aşınma olmaz. Yük asansörü
 
Elektrik tahrik kasnaklı asansörlerden farklı olarak hidrolik asansörlerde motor sadece yukarı çıkış için çalışır, aşağı inişte motor çalışmaz. -Karşı ağırlık kullanılmaz. -En üstte makine dairesine ihtiyaç duymadığı için mimari amaçlı da tercih sebebidir. -Çok sessiz çalışır. Binalarda motor sesi duyamazsınız. Otomatik katına getirme ve kurtarma sistemi mevcuttur. -Deprem ve yangında daha emniyetlidir.Yangında makine dairesi alt katta kullanım ulaşım içindir. Asansörün komple yükü diğer sistemlerde kuyu üstünde taşınırken hidrolik sistemlerde yük bina temeli tarafından taşınan için atalet kuvveti daha azdır. Deprem anında büyük hasar ve yaralanma olasılığı% 90 olarak azalır. Asansör villaları, asansör asansörleri ve hidrolik asansör tercihimizdir. hidrolik asansör


Çelikermakina Firmamız Hakkında
Kaldırma ve Taşıma Ekipmanları sektöründe hizmet vermek üzere kurulan firmamız, kurucuların meslek ve bilgi alanları nedeniyle ağırlıklı olarak Kaldırma ve Taşıma Ekipmanları, Çelik Halat, vinç ve Deniz sektöründe siz değerli müşterilerimizin ihtiyaçlarını karşılamak amacıyla Tuzla ve İmes sanayi bölgelerinde kurulmuştur. Zincirli Vinç
 
KURULUŞ AMACIMIZ
Ülke çapında kaldırma ve Taşıma Ekipmanları,Çelik Halat, Zincir ve Deniz sektöründe öncü olmak ve liderliği hergün daha da büyüyen bir organizasyonla sürdürmek, Siz müşterilerimizin ihtiyaçlarını, geniş ürün yelpazesine sahip stoklarımızla karşılamak , Fiyat uygunluğu ve dürüst çalışmayı kendisine ilke edinmiş olan firmamız, bölge bayisi olduğumuz, dünya çapındakendini kanıtlamış markaların sanayinin önde gelen firmaları tarafından tercih edilen üstün nitelikli, kaliteli ve sertifikalı ürünlerini tecrübeli personelimiz ile tarafınıza en hızlı şekilde ulaştırılmasında tüm enerjimiz ile çalışmaktır. halatlı vinç
 
KALİTE POLİTİKAMIZKaldırma ve Taşıma Ekipmanları,Çelik Halat, Zincir ve Deniz sektöründe müşterilerimizle uluslararası kabul görmüş standartlarda en iyi hizmeti sunarak lider firma olmak, tüm çalışan- larımızla sürekli kalite kavramını çevreci bir anlayış içinde tatbik etmek şirketimizin politikasıdır. istif makinesi

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 98
  • ICQ: {icq}
15 February 2020 23:36

burri60

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 15.08.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
Thanks you very  much for sharing these links. Will definitely check this out..Ki Residences floor plan

Thanks for this  article very helpful. thanks.van Holland showflat

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 17
  • ICQ: {icq}
17 February 2020 05:23

jensonbuck

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 17.02.2020
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
Hello, I just wanted to compliment you on your excellent website. As of now, this is one of the most unique and informative sites that I visited this year. As you have a Fascinating content and very well laid out and it was easy to read. You should be commended for all of your efforts. Take care and I wish you the best in your current and future endeavours. 토토사이트추천 || 토토사이트추천

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 20
  • ICQ: {icq}
17 February 2020 16:50

Celikermakina

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 12.02.2020
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
Çeliker Makina San. TİC.LTD.ŞTİ 10 Tona kadar kaldırma kapasitesi -Bir çok parça yağ içinde çalıştığından aşınma ve yıpranma çok azdır. -Kullanılan yağ çok uzun ömürlüdür. -Halat kullanılan durumlarda halatın görevi sürtünme yardımı ile yükü kaldırmak olmadığından kasnak ve halatlarda aşınma olmaz. Hidrolik asansör
Elektrik tahrik kasnaklı asansörlerden farklı olarak hidrolik asansörlerde motor sadece yukarı çıkış için çalışır, aşağı inişte motor çalışmaz. -Karşı ağırlık kullanılmaz. -En üstte makine dairesine ihtiyaç duymadığı için mimari açıdan da tercih sebebidir. -Çok sessiz çalışır. Binalarda motor sesi duyamazsınız. -Elektrik kesintisinde ilave sisteme gerek olmadan otomatik katına getirme ve kurtarma sistemi mevcuttur. -Deprem ve yangında daha emniyetlidir.Yangında makine dairesi alt katta olduğundan ulaşım kolaydır. Asansörün komple yükü diğer sistemlerde kuyu üstünde taşınırken hidrolik sistemlerde yük bina temeli tarafından taşındığı için atalet kuvveti daha azdır. Deprem anında büyük hasar ve yaralanma olasılığı %90 oranında azalır. Gerek villa tipi asansörler, gerek araç asansörleri ve yük asansörlerinde hidrolik asansör tercihimizdir. yemek Hane Asansörü

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 98
  • ICQ: {icq}
Yesterday, 22:34

burri60

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 15.08.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
This  blog is so stunningly outstanding. Left its readers in the awe.roofing guildford

Previous Next
Information
Users of Guests are not allowed to comment this publication.