» » The Advent of Colonial Rule

 

The Advent of Colonial Rule

Author: nick on 14-09-2013, 16:00, views: 6 653

492

British Protectorates in Nigeria (Source: Nig. Historical Atlas)British Protectorates in Nigeria (Source: Nig. Historical Atlas)The Jaja episode marked the beginning of the gradual dismantling of the sovereignty of the people and rulers of Southern Nigeria. The field, says Ikime, was now left for British economic and political manoeuvres (Ikime, 1981: 158).

 

Before Jaja's exile, the Niger Company had, in 1886, received a Royal Charter and become the Royal Niger Company. The Company took over from the Niger District Protectorate the corridor from the mouth of the Niger to the confluence as well as the territories on both banks of the Benue (Ejituwu, 1991: 158). In 1889, the remaining area under the protectorate, after the excision was renamed the Oil Rivers Protectorate with headquarters located at Calabar (Afigbo, 1972: 320).

 

Acquisition of territories in Africa was now regarded in official circles as indispensable to British prosperity, employment and prestige as a world power (Uzoigwe, 1975: 25). In 1891, Sir Claude Maxwell MacDonald was appointed Commissioner and Consul-General for the Oil Rivers Protectorate. He was instructed to develop trade, promote civilisation and pave the way for placing the territories over which Her Majesty's Protectorate is and may be extended directly under British rule (MacDonald, 1895).

 

In 1893, the Oil Rivers Protectorate was renamed the Niger Coast Protectorate with additional territory excised from the area controlled by the Royal Niger Company and given further instructions to open the country, push the trade and hoist the flag (Anene and Brown, 1966: 313).

 

MacDonald wasted no time in carrying out the instructions. In 1892, he created administrative units called Vice-Consulate Districts around important rivers, such as Calabar, Bonny, Opobo, and Brass, and appointed vice-consuls to administer them. To assist the vice-consuls in their work, he also set up a constabulary and introduced indirect taxation in the form of customs duties in the protectorate.

 

The vice-consuls were given the duties of cultivating and maintaining friendly relations with the native people, opening up roads and markets and generally preserving peace and order in their respective areas. They were also responsible for the proper working of the Customs, Postal and Treasury Departments in their areas of jurisdiction (MacDonald, 1895).

 

1890 Trade Regulations on the Opobo River On September 1st, 1890, the Acting British Consul, George Annesley, issued Regulations for the maintenance of Peace and Order in the District of Opobo, reconstituting the Governing Council on the Opobo River, and making the trading agents responsible for the peace and discipline on their factory beaches, and the native chiefs - for the behaviour of their 'boys'.
 
The importation of modern weapons and the export of slaves were prohibited.
 
The river was open to trade by all nationals and export duty, paid by both foreign and native traders alike, was to be collected by the President of the Governing Council. He was Johannes Gierl, a German leading trading agent on the river and Chairman of the African Association traders, who was highly respected by all for his long experience, kind-heartedness and fairness. Other members were:
 
European Members / Trading Agents Native Members / Opobo Chiefs
F. D. Mitchell
Robert Foster
A. B. Hallowell
W. Bruce
R. N. Williams
Arthur C. Hewitt
Chief Cookey Gam
Chief John Africa
Chief Fine Bone
Chief Ogolo Annie Pepple
Chief John Black Foobra
Chief Oko Jaja
Chief Samuel Toby
  FO 84/2020 (Source: Jaja, 1991: 65-68

1890 Trade Regulations on the Opobo River On September 1st, 1890, the Acting British Consul, George Annesley, issued Regulations for the maintenance of Peace and Order in the District of Opobo, reconstituting the Governing Council on the Opobo River, and making the trading agents responsible for the peace and discipline on their factory beaches, and the native chiefs - for the behaviour of their 'boys'.

 

The importation of modern weapons and the export of slaves were prohibited.

 

The river was open to trade by all nationals and export duty, paid by both foreign and native traders alike, was to be collected by the President of the Governing Council. He was Johannes Gierl, a German leading trading agent on the river and Chairman of the African Association traders, who was highly respected by all for his long experience, kind-heartedness and fairness. Other members were:

 

European Members / Trading Agents Native Members / Opobo Chiefs

F. D. Mitchell
Robert Foster
A. B. Hallowell
W. Bruce
R. N. Williams
Arthur C. Hewitt

Chief Cookey Gam
Chief John Africa
Chief Fine Bone
Chief Ogolo Annie Pepple
Chief John Black Foobra
Chief Oko Jaja
Chief Samuel Toby
 
FO 84/2020 (Source: Jaja, 1991: 65-68)

 

In Opobo River, a Vice-Consulate or Administrative District Headquarters was established at Norah Beach at the mouth of Ikot Abasi River with William Cairn Armstrong as vice-consul. The area of jurisdiction of the district covered not only Opobo Town and Ikot Abasi area up to Essene market, but also extended to Akwete in the Upper Imo River (Cheesman, 1932 A: 13). Norah Beach remained the administrative centre of the district till 1902, when it was replaced by Egwanga on the Ikot Abasi bank of the river (Ibid.: 14).

 

The Vice-Consul, W. C. Armstrong, is said to have done much to advance the political and economic interest of the Niger Coast Protectorate in Opobo District. Under his administration, law and order was maintained. The administration of government worked well. Trade and consequent revenue increased to a very considerable amount. Sanitation was well maintained and the Church Missionary Society was established in Opobo Town. In fact, Armstrong is reported to have worked so well that before his death on January 3, 1895, much had been done to create good feelings among the Opobo chiefs towards the Protectorate Government. The amount of trade done in the Opobo River (District) very nearly approached that done in the whole of the much larger District of Old Calabar and the grateful Opobo chiefs contributed money towards erecting a monument on his grave there (MacDonald, 1895).

 

Exploration of the hinterland of the new Opobo District was undertaken by Roger Casement, an official of the Niger Coast Protectorate, in 1894. His attempt to explore the area through Itu having failed, he returned to Calabar from where he trekked through Opobo (Egwanga) to Essene, Ibekwe Akpan Nya, Efa, Mbioto and Ikot Osong, before returning to Opobo (Ibid.).

 

The following year, 1895, the Vice-Consulates in the Niger Coast Protectorate were grouped into three large divisions, namely, Eastern, Central and Western, with headquarters at Calabar, Bonny and Warri, respectively. Opobo District came under Calabar Division (Afigbo, 1972: 414; Ikime, 1980: 414). The Niger Coast Protectorate Force was also employed during the period 1894-95 in several expeditions in the hinterland of Ikot Abasi and Qua Iboe Rivers (Casement, 1895: 233). The net result of all these developments was that by 1895 effective British influence - commercial and political - had been firmly established in Opobo District.

 

MacDonald was succeeded as Consul General by Sir Ralph Moor in 1896. Under Moor, a series of military expeditions were conducted in the Niger Coast Protectorate, almost continuously, from 1896 to 1900. With the revocation of the Charter of the Royal Niger Company at the end of 1899, the company ceased to possess administrative rights. Territories formerly belonging to the company, together with the territories of the Niger Coast Protectorate were in 1900 organised as the Protectorate of Southern Nigeria with headquarters at Calabar and with Sir Ralph Moor as High Commissioner (Ikime, 1972: 65-66). Opobo District then became part of the new Protectorate of Southern Nigeria.

скачать dle 11.1смотреть фильмы бесплатно

Category: Early History and Trade Contacts

Dear visitor, you are browsing our website as Guest.
We strongly recommend you to register and login to view hidden contents.
<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 697
  • ICQ: {icq}
19 October 2019 21:18

seoexpert

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 22.06.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
Fabulous  post, you have denoted out some fantastic points, I likewise think this s a  very wonderful website. I will visit again for more quality contents and  also, recommend this site to all. Thanks.Tisane bio

The  article looks magnificent, but it would be beneficial if you can share more  about the suchlike subjects in the future. Keep posting.18bet

This is why it is far  better that you simply applicable investigating well before building. You can  actually design more effective share in such a manner.Universities for GRE score 300-310

This amazing is very  much unquestionably great. All these smaller fact is manufactured working  with number with credentials know-how. I actually enjoy the reasoning the  best value.https://triballoanspaydaylenders.webnode.com/l/tribal-loans/

Superior  post, keep up with this exceptional work. It's nice to know that this topic  is being also covered on this web site so cheers for taking the time to  discuss this! Thanks again and again!Business video intercom upgrade

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 697
  • ICQ: {icq}
20 October 2019 21:28

seoexpert

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 22.06.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
Today, I  was just browsing along and came upon your blog. Just wanted to say good blog  and this article helped me a lot, due to which I have found exactly I was  looking.competitor price monitoring

Wow, this  is fascinating reading. I am glad I found this and got to read it. Great job  on this content. I liked it a lot. Thanks for the great and unique info.best school in Siliguri

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 84
  • ICQ: {icq}
21 October 2019 11:21

burri60

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 15.08.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
A very  awesome blog post. We are really grateful for your blog post. You will find a  lot of approaches after visiting your post.apartments for sale in Malta

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 697
  • ICQ: {icq}
21 October 2019 12:52

seoexpert

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 22.06.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
That's look into you  ought to special groundwork ahead of when authoring. Shall be likely that  will even more alluring blog post through this industry.my explanation

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 7
  • ICQ: {icq}
21 October 2019 20:36

jackclark

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 21.10.2019
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
pepperstone  commission
Amazing knowledge and I like to share this kind of information with my friends and hope they like it they why I do.



<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 697
  • ICQ: {icq}
21 October 2019 22:12

seoexpert

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 22.06.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
This was really an  interesting topic and I kinda agree with what you have mentioned here!nordicbet

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 697
  • ICQ: {icq}
22 October 2019 18:15

seoexpert

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 22.06.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
You know your  projects stand out of the herd. There is something special about them. It  seems to me all of them are really brilliant!luxury holiday cottages Woolacombe

The  article looks magnificent, but it would be beneficial if you can share more  about the suchlike subjects in the future. Keep posting.handmade halo engagement rings Sydney

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 697
  • ICQ: {icq}
23 October 2019 20:04

seoexpert

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 22.06.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
Rest room marketing  techniques you pertinent query previous to building. Will probably be quick  to write down remarkable write-up because of this.votre page entreprise sur internet pas cher

This is very  interesting content!  I have thoroughly  enjoyed reading your points and have come to the conclusion that you are  right about many of them.  You are  great.cresus casino

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 84
  • ICQ: {icq}
24 October 2019 23:56

burri60

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 15.08.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
Been searching for  such a remarkable blog like this for a long time.xtrasize original funciona

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 7
  • ICQ: {icq}
25 October 2019 01:32

jackclark

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 21.10.2019
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
Buy a bitcoin cloud  mining contract
Many thanks for the exciting blog posting! Simply put your blog post to my favorite blog list and will look forward for additional updates. Simply wanted to write down a word in order to say thanks to you for those wonderful tips.



<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 84
  • ICQ: {icq}
27 October 2019 12:21

burri60

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 15.08.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
Superbly written  article, if only all bloggers offered the same content as you, the internet  would be a far better place..seo solutions

very interesting  post.this is my first time visit here.i found so mmany interesting stuff in  your blog especially its discussion..thanks for the post!SEO BACKLINKS

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 697
  • ICQ: {icq}
2 November 2019 14:44

seoexpert

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 22.06.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
Impressive  web site, Distinguished feedback that I can tackle. Im moving forward and may  apply to my current job as a  pet  sitter, which is very enjoyable, but I need to additional  expand. Regards.נערות ליווי בתל אביב

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 84
  • ICQ: {icq}
3 November 2019 23:13

burri60

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 15.08.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
Excited  by the essayist's capacity to write in this brilliant way.geolocalisation-telephone.fr

I recently found  many useful information in your website especially this blog page. Among the  lots of comments on your articles. Thanks for sharing.Forum

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 84
  • ICQ: {icq}
4 November 2019 20:49

burri60

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 15.08.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
This blog is really  great. The information here will surely be of some help to me. Thanks!.pirater un compte facebook

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 7
  • ICQ: {icq}
5 November 2019 00:29

jackclark

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 21.10.2019
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
find a hacker on the dark web

I’m excited to  uncover this page. I need to to thank you for ones time for this particularly  fantastic read!! I definitely really liked every part of it and i also have  you saved to fav to look at new information in your site

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 697
  • ICQ: {icq}
5 November 2019 15:38

seoexpert

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 22.06.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
Whenever I  have some free time, I visit blogs to get some useful info. Today, I found  your blog with the help of Google. Believe me; I found it one of the most  informative blog.click here

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 697
  • ICQ: {icq}
6 November 2019 13:51

seoexpert

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 22.06.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
This method is  actually aesthetically truly the most suitable. Every one associated with  tiny illustrates tend to be meant by way of numerous history abilities. I  suggest the program quite a bit.gag reflex

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 84
  • ICQ: {icq}
6 November 2019 23:58

burri60

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 15.08.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
Impressive work on  the essayist's part.SantamonicaTraveLodge.com

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 84
  • ICQ: {icq}
14 November 2019 21:28

burri60

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 15.08.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
This blog is a  first class work, It is indeed a classic work of art.buymyweedonline vs greensociety

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 84
  • ICQ: {icq}
19 November 2019 17:17

burri60

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 15.08.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
You must  indulge in a contest for one of the greatest blogs over the internet. Ill  suggest this web site!internet marketing packages

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 7
  • ICQ: {icq}
20 November 2019 00:30

jackclark

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 21.10.2019
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
agen rolet  terpercaya
Thanks for ones marvelous posting! I genuinely enjoyed reading it, you are a great author. I will be sure to bookmark your blog and may come back very soon. I want to encourage you to definitely continue your great job, have a nice weekend.



<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 84
  • ICQ: {icq}
20 November 2019 20:30

burri60

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 15.08.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
Have you  ever considered about adding a little bit more than just your articles? I  mean, what you say is fundamental and everything. Nevertheless think about if  you added some great pictures or video clips to give your posts more, “pop”!  Your content is excellent but with images and clips, this site could  certainly be one of the most beneficial in its field. Fantastic blog!카지노사이트주소추천

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 84
  • ICQ: {icq}
22 November 2019 22:33

burri60

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 15.08.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
It proved to be  Very helpful to me and I am sure to all the commentators here! Pháp Luân Công

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 84
  • ICQ: {icq}
30 November 2019 21:11

burri60

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 15.08.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
I’m having  a small problem. I’m unable to subscribe to your rss feed for some reason.  I’m using google reader by the way.Free iTunes Gift Card

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 84
  • ICQ: {icq}
5 December 2019 22:02

burri60

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 15.08.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
After  research a couple of of the weblog posts in your web site now, and I actually  like your way of blogging. I bookmarked it to my bookmark website list and  shall be checking back soon. Pls check out my web page as well and let me  know what you think.học trang điểm chuyên nghiệp

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 84
  • ICQ: {icq}
12 December 2019 00:49

burri60

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 15.08.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
I am appreciative  to the essayist for composing this.What to eat in China

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 7
  • ICQ: {icq}
15 December 2019 20:21

jackclark

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 21.10.2019
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
http://daftarosg777.online/
I discovered your  site ideal for me. It consists of wonderful and useful posts. I've read many  of them and also got so much from them. In my experience, you do the truly  amazing.Truly i'm impressed out of this publish

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 84
  • ICQ: {icq}
16 December 2019 17:35

burri60

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 15.08.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
A finish pointed  blog, expected to awe individuals.seo packages

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 84
  • ICQ: {icq}
18 December 2019 14:18

burri60

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 15.08.2018
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
A fundamental  hotspot for the group of onlookers that makes the peruser stride by step.click here

<
  • Articles: 0
  • Comments: 285
  • ICQ: {icq}
20 December 2019 15:23

Robinjack

  • Usergroup: Members
  • Register: 11.09.2017
  • Status: Currently Offlline
 
very  nice put up, i actually love this web site, keep on it
المؤسس  عثمان

I  simply couldn’t go away your website before suggesting that I actually  enjoyed the standard information an individual provide on your visitors? Is  gonna be back frequently in order to inspect new posts.
texas  university

Information
Users of Guests are not allowed to comment this publication.